The previous post in this series may be found here: https://memoirandremains.wordpress.com/2014/05/22/plutarchs-marriage-advice-section-43-unity-and-sin/
If what they say about cats is true, that perfume will tear them apart and drive them mad; it is also true for some woman who become furious and lose their mind for scents. It would be crazy for a husband to torment his wife just so he could have the brief pleasure of wearing cologne.
Now, wives don’t suffer because their husbands use cologne, but rather because they are around other women. It’s not right to use trivial pleasures to cause pain and confusion to your wife
They say that bees grow cross and attack those who have been around women. In the same way, husbands should be pure and even cleansed from other women before they approach their wives.
Greek Text & Notes:
ειʼ καθάπερ τὸν αἴλουρον ὀσμῇ μύρων ἐκταράττεσθαι καὶ μαίνεσθαι λέγουσιν , οὕτω τὰς γυναῖκας ἀγριαίνειν καὶ παραφρονεῖν ὑπὸ μύρων συνέβαινε , δεινὸν ἦν μὴ ἀπέχεσθαι μύρου τοὺς ἄνδρας, ἀλλὰ διʼ ἡδονὴν αὑτῶν βραχεῖαν οὕτω κακουμένας περιορᾶν. ἐπεὶ τοίνυν ταῦτα πάσχουσιν ουʼ μυριζομένων τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀλλὰ συγγιγνομένων ἑτέραις, ἄδικόν ἐστιν ἡδονῆς ἕνεκα μικρᾶς ἐπὶ τοσοῦτο λυπεῖν καὶ συνταράττειν τὰς γυναῖκας καὶ μή, καθάπερ ταῖς μελίτταις ὅτι δοκοῦσι δυσχεραίνειν καὶ μάχεσθαι τοῖς μετὰ γυναικῶν γενομένοις, ἁγνοὺς καὶ καθαρεύοντας ἑτέρων συνουσίας προσιέναι ταῖς γυναιξίν.
ειʼ καθάπερ τὸν αἴλουρον
If just as the cat
This is not quite a true condition, for there is no true protasis & apodosis. However, Plutarch is drawing an inference between the effect of perfumes upon cats and the effect upon women: If what they say is true about cats, it’s also true about women: so go nuts for perfume.
by means of the scent of perfume
Dative of agency.
Genitive of material: the substance of the scent is the perfume
ἐκταράττεσθαι καὶ μαίνεσθαι λέγουσιν
to be thrown in confusion and to become crazed they say
The infinitives show the result of the exposure: They say that by means of perfume cats become crazed. The infinitives are passive, the cats are made crazy.
ἐκτα^ρ-άσσω , Att. ἐκτα?́ρ-ττω ,
A.throw into confusion, “τοὺς ἵππους” Ascl.Tact.7.4, etc.; agitate, “τὸν δῆμον” Plu.Cor.19, cf. Jul.Or.2.97d :—Pass., to be greatly troubled, be confounded, “ὑπό τινος” Isoc.15.5, Ath.12.552f; “πρός τι” Luc. Somn.16.
II. in Pass. also, to have a bowel-complaint, “κοιλίη ἐκταραχθεῖσα” Hp.Aph.4.60, Epid.1.15.
οὕτω τὰς γυναῖκας
Thus the women
Women as a class. The accusative draws the women into parallel with “the cats”.
ἀγριαίνειν καὶ παραφρονεῖν
to be wild and out of their minds/besides themselves
Here, the infinitives are active.
ἀγριαίνω , fut.
A.“ανῶ” Pl.R.501e: aor. “ἠγρία_να” D.C.44.47, Ael.VH2.13:—Pass., D.H.9.32, Plu.Ant.58: fut. “ἀγριανθήσομαι” LXX Da.11.11: aor. “ἠγριάνθην” D.S.24.1.—In Att. the Pass. was supplied by ἀγριόω (q. v.), which was rare in Act.; but the compd. Pass. ἐξαγριαίνομαι occurs in Pl.R.336d, and the Act. ἐξαγριόω in Hdt.6.123, E.Ph.876, Pl.Lg.935a.
1. intr., to be or become wild, to be angered, provoked, Pl.R.493b, etc.; τινί with one, Id.Smp.173d; “πρός τινα” Porph.Abst. 3.12; of animals, Arist.HA608b31; of rivers and the like , chafe, “πρὸς τὴν πλήμμυραν . . ἀγριαίνων ὁ ποταμός” Plu.Caes.38:—Pass., D.S. l.c.; of sores, to be angry or inflamed, Aret.SD2.11, cf. Antyll. ap. Orib.10.13.2.
II. causal, make angry, provoke, D.C.44.47; of love, irritate, Ach.Tat.2.7:—Pass., to be angered, Plu. l.c., Hierocl. in CA10p.434M.; “ὑπὸ τῶν δημαγωγῶν” D.H. l.c.
ὑπὸ μύρων συνέβαινε
by means of perfume it comes about
The verb is 3rd person singular: it is the event which takes place, resulting in the madness indicated by the infintives.
δεινὸν ἦν μὴ ἀπέχεσθαι μύρου τοὺς ἄνδρας
a fearsome/dreadful thing it would be not to abstain from perfume the husbands
It would be dangerous for husbands not to abstain from perfume.
ἀλλὰ διʼ ἡδονὴν αὑτῶν βραχεῖαν
but for pleasure their own brief
dia + accusative: for the sake of, because
But for their own brief pleasure
οὕτω κακουμένας περιορᾶν
thus suffering to permit/allow
The husband permits his wife to suffer just so he can have some pleasure.
περι-οράω, impf. περιεώρων, Ion. περιώρεον: pf. περιεόρᾱκα: f. -όψομαι, pf. pass. -ῶμμαι, aor. I pass. -ώφθην: aor. 2 περιεῖδον: for pf. περίοιδα, v. subvoc.:—to look over, overlook, i.e. to allow, suffer:
H.G. Liddell, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996), 629.
ἐπεὶ τοίνυν ταῦτα πάσχουσιν ουʼ μυριζομένων τῶν ἀνδρῶν
Now since these things they suffer not by being perfumed of their husbands
Yet, these women are not suffering because their husbands wear cologne
ἀλλὰ συγγιγνομένων ἑτέραις,
but being with other [women]
συγ-γίγνομαι, Ion. συγγίν- [ῑ]: f. -γενήσομαι, aor. 2 -εγενόμην, pf. -γέγονα: Dep.:—to be with any one, hold converse or communication with, associate or keep company with, τινί Hdt., Att.; so, also, ς. ἐς λόγους τινί Ar.
2. of disciples or pupils, to hold converse with a master, consult him, Id., etc.
3. to come to assist, τινί or πρός τινα Aesch.; absol., Soph.
4. to come together, meet, Hdt., etc.; οἱ συγγιγνόμενοι comrades, Xen.
H.G. Liddell, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996), 752.
ἄδικόν ἐστιν ἡδονῆς
the pleasure is unjust
ἐπὶ τοσοῦτο λυπεῖν καὶ συνταράττειν τὰς γυναῖκας
upon this to [cause to] suffer and to [cause to] throw into confusion the wives
καὶ μή, καθάπερ ταῖς μελίτταις
and not, just as by honey bees
melittais = melissais
dative of respect: with respect to bees
ὅτι δοκοῦσι δυσχεραίνειν καὶ μάχεσθαι
because they are thought to be vexatious and to battle
Here, the infinitives complete the content of the thought.
δυσχεραίνω, f. -ᾰνῶ: aor. I ἐδυσχέρᾱνα: (δυσχερής):—to be unable to endure a thing, bear with an ill grace, Lat. aegre ferre, c. acc., Plat.; c. acc. et part. to be annoyed at his doing, Aeschin.
2. intr. to feel annoyance, to be discontented, displeased, vexed, τινός for or because of a thing, Plat., etc.; τινί at a thing, Dem.:—Pass. to be hateful, Plut.
3. c. inf. to scorn to do a thing, Plat.
II. Causal, to cause vexation, ῥήματα τέρψαντα ἢ δυσχεράναντʼ Soph.
III. δ. ἐν τοῖς λόγοις to make difficulties in argument, to be captious, Plat.
H.G. Liddell, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996), 217.
τοῖς μετὰ γυναικῶν γενομένοις,
to those with women having been
substantive participle those having been (with women)
ἁγνοὺς καὶ καθαρεύοντας
pure and cleansed
of others being together
The genitive: pure from such connection.
συνουσί-α , Ion. -ιη, ἡ: (συνών, συνοῦσα part. of σύνειμι):—
A.being with or together, esp. for purposes of feasting or conversing, social intercourse, society, Hdt.6.128, A.Eu.285, S.OC647, etc.; “κομψὸς ἐν συνουσίᾳ” Ar.Nu.649; ς. τινός intercourse with one, “σοφοὶ τύραννοι τῶν σοφῶν ξυνουσίᾳ” S.Fr.14; γυναικῶν ς. (with a play on signf. 4) Ar. Ec.110 = Trag.Adesp.51; ἡ τοῦ θείου ς. communion with . . , Pl.Phd. 83e; τῆς νόσου ξυνουσίᾳ by long intercourse with it, S.Ph.520; προϊούσης τῆς ς. as the conversation goes on, Pl.Tht.150d; ς. ποιεῖσθαι hold conversation together, Id.Sph.217e, Smp.176e, al.; “τὴν ς. διαλῦσαι” Id.La.201c: pl., Isoc.4.45, Pl.Phd.111b, al.; ξυνουσίαι θηρῶν, = οἱ ξυνόντες θῆρες, S.Ph.936.
2. οὐ λόγοις . . , ἀλλὰ τῇ ξυνουσίᾳ but by habitual association, constant resort, Id.OC 63.
3. intercourse with a teacher, attendance at his teaching, μισθὸς τῆς ς. X.Mem.1.2.60, cf. 6.11; ἡ πρὸς Σωκράτην ς. αὐτοῖν their intercourse with him, ib.1.2.13; “ἡ περὶ γράμματα ς. τῶν μανθανόντων” Pl.Plt.285c; ἡ σὴ ς. intercourse with you, Id.Prt. 318a.
4. sexual intercourse, Democr.32, Pl.Lg.838a, X.Cyr.6.1.31 (v.l.), Epicur.Fr.62, etc.; ἡ ἀνδρὸς καὶ γυναικὸς ς. Pl.Smp.206c (interpol.); “ἀνδρῶν” X.Oec.9.11; ἡ πρὸς τοὺς ἄρρενας ς. Arist.Pol.1269b27; ἡ τῶν ἀφροδισίων ς. Pl.Smp.192c; “ἡ τῆς παιδογονίας” Id.Lg.838e; of animals, copulation, Arist.HA630b35, al.; cf. σύνειμι （εἰμί sum) 11.2.
II. in concrete sense, a society, company, party, Hdt.2.78 (pl.), Pl.Smp.173a, Lg.672a; ἡ ἐν οἴνῳ ς., = συμπόσιον, Id.Lg.652a; αἱ ἐν τοῖς πότοις ς. Isoc.1.32; πότοι καὶ ς. Id.15.286; αἱ σοφαὶ ξυνουσίαι literary parties, conversazioni, Ar.Th.21; “εἰς τὰς ς. . . παραλαμβάνουσι τὴν μουσικήν” Arist.Pol.1339b22
προσιέναι ταῖς γυναιξίν
to come to their wives
πρόσειμι (from εἶμι; Hom.+; ins, pap; 4 Macc; TestSol 20:2 P; Jos., Bell. 2, 324; Ath. R. 11 p. 60, 15) to make movement towards, approach, come forward MPol 4.
William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 878.