Concerning Sacrifices, Greek, Greek Translation, Lucian, Lucian of Samosata, New Testament Background, NT Background
The previous post in this series may be found here: https://memoirandremains.wordpress.com/2014/12/21/lucian-of-samosata-concerning-sacrifices-4/
The poets speak such eloquent words about the gods – a great deal about these most divine things when it comes to Hephaestus and Prometheus and Cronus and Rhea, nearly the entire family of Zeus.
When they begin, they call upon the Muses to sing with them, and so inspired of the gods they sing of how Kronos castrated his father Uranus, then ruled in his place. He, of course, like Thyestes of Argos did latter, devoured his own children.
Or Zeus: saved by the fraud of Rhea (his mother) who substituted a stone (his father tried to eat him); later exposed on Crete; raised by a goat; he drove off his father and threw him in prison; married many women; and just like the Persian and the Assyrians, he married his own sister. Or what of his erotic dealings, his gushing lust, recklessly filling heaven with children: some were gods; but many were bastards bred with mortals upon earth: he came as a noble shower of gold, once a bull, once a swan, once an eagle – he was more changable than Proteus! Once he sprouted Athene from his head; conceiving her right in his own brain. Finally, they say when Dionysis was half-done, and his mother was on fire, Zeus snatched out of his mother, buried him (Dionysis) in his thigh until he cut him out, because the gestation was finished.
Greek Text and Notes:
 ἢ γὰρ ουʼ ταῦτα σεμνολογοῦσιν οἱ ποιηταὶ περὶ τῶν θεῶν καὶ πολὺ τούτων ἱερώτερα περί τε Ἡφαίστου καὶ Προμηθέως καὶ Κρόνου καὶ Ῥέας καὶ σχεδὸν ὅλης τῆς τοῦ Διὸς οἰκίας; καὶ ταῦτα παρακαλέσαντες τὰς Μούσας συνῳδοὺς ἐν ἀρχῇ τῶν ἐπῶν, ὑφʼ ὧν δὴ ἔνθεοι γενόμενοι, ὡς τὸ εἰκός, ᾅδουσιν ὡς ὁ μὲν Κρόνος ἐπειδὴ τάχιστα ἐξέτεμε τὸν πατέρα τὸν Οὐρανόν, ἐβασίλευσέν τε ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰ τέκνα κατήσθιεν ὥσπερ ὁ Ἀργεῖος Θυέστης ὕστερον· ὁ δὲ Ζεὺς κλαπεὶς ὑπὸ τῆς Ῥέας ὑποβαλομένης τὸν λίθον εἰς τὴν Κρήτην ἐκτεθεὶς ὑπʼ αἰγὸς ἀνετράφη καθάπερ ὁ Τήλεφος ὑπὸ ἐλάφου καὶ ὁ Πέρσης Κῦρος ὁ πρότερος ὑπὸ τῆς κυνός, εἶτʼ ἐξελάσας τὸν πατέρα καὶ εἰς τὸ δεσμωτήριον καταβαλὼν αὐτὸς ἔσχε τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔγημε δὲ πολλὰς μὲν καὶ ἄλλας, ὑστάτην δὲ τὴν ἀδελφὴν κατὰ τοὺς Περσῶν καὶ Ἀσσυρίων νόμους· ἐρωτικὸς δὲ ὢν καὶ εἰς τὰ ἀφροδίσια ἐκκεχυμένος ῥᾳδίως ἐνέπλησε παίδων τὸν οὐρανόν, . τοὺς μὲν ἐξ ὁμοτίμων ποιησάμενος, ἐνίους δὲ νόθους ἐκ τοῦ θνητοῦ καὶ ἐπιγείου γένους, ἄρτι μὲν ὁ γεννάδας γενόμενος χρυσός, ἄρτι δὲ ταῦρος ἢ κύκνος ἢ ἀετός, καὶ ὅλως ποικιλώτερος αὐτοῦ Πρωτέως· μόνην δὲ τὴν Ἀθηνᾶν ἔφυσεν ἐκ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ κεφαλῆς ὑπʼ αὐτὸν ἀτεχνῶς τὸν ἐγκέφαλον συλλαβών τὸν μὲν γὰρ Διόνυσον ἡμιτελῆ, φασίν, ἐκ τῆς μητρὸς ἔτι καιομένης ἁρπάσας ἐν τῷ μηρῷ φέρων κατώρυξε κᾆτα ἐξέτεμεν τῆς ὠδῖνος ἐνστάσης.
 ἢ γὰρ ουʼ ταῦτα σεμνολογοῦσιν οἱ ποιηταὶ περὶ τῶν θεῶν
Or for not these things they seriously speak the poets concerning the gods
καὶ πολὺ τούτων ἱερώτερα
And much/may of these divine things
περί τε Ἡφαίστου καὶ Προμηθέως καὶ Κρόνου καὶ Ῥέας καὶ σχεδὸν ὅλης τῆς τοῦ Διὸς οἰκίας;
Concerning also Hephaestus and Prometheus and Cronus and Rhea, and nearly the entire household/family of Zeus
καὶ ταῦτα παρακαλέσαντες τὰς Μούσας συνῳδοὺς ἐν ἀρχῇ τῶν ἐπῶν,
and these summoning the (aid of) the Muses to sing with in the beginning of the words
ὑφʼ ὧν δὴ ἔνθεοι γενόμενοι,
by means of this being inspired by gods
ὡς τὸ εἰκός,
as it seems
ᾅδουσιν ὡς ὁ μὲν Κρόνος
they about Kronos
ἐπειδὴ τάχιστα ἐξέτεμε τὸν πατέρα τὸν Οὐρανόν,
when he quickly cut-off his father Uranus
From Wikipedia: Cronus /ˈkroʊnəs/ or both Cronos and Kronos /ˈkroʊnɒs/ (Greek: Κρόνος [krónos]) was in Greek mythology the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky and Gaia, the earth. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus.
Cronus was usually depicted with a Harpe, Scythe or a Sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.
ἐβασίλευσέν τε ἐν αὐτῷ
and ruled in place of him
καὶ τὰ τέκνα κατήσθιεν
and ate his own child
ὥσπερ ὁ Ἀργεῖος Θυέστης ὕστερον·
just like Thyestes of Argos did latter.
ὁ δὲ Ζεὺς κλαπεὶς ὑπὸ τῆς Ῥέας ὑποβαλομένης τὸν λίθον
Or Zeus tricking/defrauding by Rhea’s substituting the stone
A stone was substituted for Zeus, when Chronos tried to eat his own children.
Klapeis from klepto. In addition to stealing, the verb can also refer to fraud, cozening, trickery.
εἰς τὴν Κρήτην ἐκτεθεὶς ὑπʼ αἰγὸς ἀνετράφη
at/on Crete abandoned/exposed by a goat raised up/suckled
καθάπερ ὁ Τήλεφος ὑπὸ ἐλάφου
just like Telephos was by a deer
καὶ ὁ Πέρσης Κῦρος ὁ πρότερος ὑπὸ τῆς κυνός,
and the persian Cyrus the Great was by a bitch
εἶτʼ ἐξελάσας τὸν πατέρα
when he drove off his father
καὶ εἰς τὸ δεσμωτήριον καταβαλὼν αὐτὸς
and when he threw him into the dungeon
ἔσχε τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔγημε δὲ πολλὰς μὲν καὶ ἄλλας,
he took the rule (of his father) and married many women (which was like the others)
ὑστάτην δὲ τὴν ἀδελφὴν
at last (he married) his sister
κατὰ τοὺς Περσῶν καὶ Ἀσσυρίων νόμους·
in accordance with the custom/laws of the Perians and Assyrians
his erotic adventures
ὢν καὶ εἰς τὰ ἀφροδίσια ἐκκεχυμένος ῥᾳδίως
being also for the lusts being poured out recklessly
ἐνέπλησε παίδων τὸν οὐρανόν, .
filling heaven with children
τοὺς μὲν ἐξ ὁμοτίμων ποιησάμενος,
those on one hand of equal-honor making
(some were gods)
ἐνίους δὲ νόθους ἐκ τοῦ θνητοῦ καὶ ἐπιγείου γένους,
but many were bastards born from mortals of the earthbound race
ἄρτι μὲν ὁ γεννάδας γενόμενος χρυσός,
for instance coming as noble gold (a golden shower)
arti designates an instance.
Lucian mentions these events in brief, supposing his readers will immediately know the entire story.
ἄρτι δὲ ταῦρος
once as a bull
or a swan
or an eagle
καὶ ὅλως ποικιλώτερος αὐτοῦ Πρωτέως·
wholly more adaptable than Proteus
μόνην δὲ τὴν Ἀθηνᾶν ἔφυσεν ἐκ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ κεφαλῆς
Once he grew Athene from his own head
Athene is in the accusative: she did not grow herself, he grew her.
The verb smacks of a plant growing.
ὑπʼ αὐτὸν ἀτεχνῶς τὸν ἐγκέφαλον συλλαβών
by himself without planing out his brain conceiving
ἄτεχν-ος , ον,
A.without art, unskilful, Pl.Plt.274c; esp. ignorant of the rules or principles of art, opp. ἔντεχνος or τεχνίτης, unskilled, unprofessional, of persons, Id.Sph.219a, Gal.6.134, S.E. P.3.262; having no trade or profession, PFlor.4.14 (iv A.D.); unsystematic, “διδασκαλία” Anon.in SE67.31; of pursuits, “ἄ. τριβή” Pl. Phdr.260e, cf. 262c, Lg.938a; πίστεις ἄ. proofs not invented by the orator, Arist.Rh.1355b35, 1375a22; “ἀποδείξεις” Ph.1.355; “αἰσχρὸν καὶ ἄ.” not workmanlike, Hp.Fract.30; πῦρ uncreative, opp. τεχνικόν, Zeno Stoic.1.34; φαντασία ib.2.24.
ἀτέχνως , Adv. of ἄτεχνος,
A.without art, without rules of art, empirically, X.Mem.3.11.7, Pl.Grg.501a.
- ἀτεχνῶς (with penult. short), Adv. of ἀτεχνής, simply, i.e. really, absolutely, freq. in Com., Pl., etc.; “ἀ. ἥκω παρεσκευασμένος” Ar.Ach.37, cf. Nu.408,1174, al.; καλὸν ἀ. simply beautiful, Id.Av.820; “ἀ. γε παμπόνηρα” Id.Ra.106; ῥύγχος ἀ. ἔσθ᾽ ὑός simply a swine’s snout, Pherecr.102; “ἀ. μὲν οὖν σκύτη βλέπει” Eup.282; “ἀ. τὸ τοῦ Ὁμήρου ἐπεπόνθη” Pl.Smp.198c; bona fide, sincerely, opp. κόμπου ἕνεκα, Philostr.VA6.20: freq. in comparisons, ἀ. ὥσπερ just like , Pl.Phd.90c, etc.; “ἀ. οἷον” Id.Lg.952e: with neg., οὐδ᾽ ἂν διαλεχθείην γ᾽ ἀ. would just not have spoken a word to him, Ar.Nu.425; ἀ. οὐδείς simply no one, Id.Av.605, cf. Pl. 362, Pl.Plt.288a.—On ἀτέχνως and -νῶς v. Sch.Ar.Pl.109.
τὸν μὲν γὰρ Διόνυσον ἡμιτελῆ,
conceiving for instance Dionysis was half-done
hemi-telos: half complete
φασίν, ἐκ τῆς μητρὸς
they say, from his mother
ἐν τῷ μηρῷ
in his thigh
κᾆτα ἐξέτεμεν τῆς ὠδῖνος ἐνστάσης.
Until he cut-out when the time for delivery was complete