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Chilon lived about 560 B.C. The  Greek text comes from Diogenes Laertius, The Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 3rd Century A.D. (the transaction is mine),

220px-Chilon_of_Sparta

There’s a  story that Chilon asked Aesop what Zeus was doing; Aesop said, “Knocking down the exalted, and exalting the low.”

When asked the difference between the educated and uneducated he said, “Good hope.”

What is difficult?

To keep the hidden quiet; to use leisure well; to be able to bear injustice.

He also said these things:

Keep your tongue —especially when you’re drinking.
Don’t slander your neighbor, unless you want to hear things that will make you cry.
Don’t threaten anyone: it looks weak.
Be quicker to see your friends when they’re in trouble, than when they’re lucky.
Don’t speak evil of the dead.
Honor age.
Guard yourself.
Choose loss rather than make a dishonest gain: the first will hurt only once; the latter, always.
Don’t laugh at misfortune.
When you’re strong, be gentle: then your neighbors will honor you; not fear you.
Learn to order your own house well.
Don’t let your tongue run past your mind.
Control your anger.
Don’t hate divination.
Don’t desire the impossible.
Don’t rush.
When you talk, don’t move your hands: it makes you look like a maniac.
Use rest.

 

Greek Text & Notes:

φασὶ δʼ αὐτὸν καὶ Αἰσώπου πυθέσθαι, ὁ Ζεὺς τί εἴη ποιῶν· τὸν δὲ φάναι, “τὰ μὲν ὑψηλὰ ταπεινῶν, τὰ δὲ ταπεινὰ ὑψῶν.” ἐρωτηθεὶς τίνι διαφέρουσιν οἱ πεπαιδευμένοι τῶν ἀπαιδεύτων, ἔφη, “ἐλπίσιν ἀγαθαῖς.” τί δύσκολον, “τὸ τὰ ἀπόρρητα σιωπῆσαι, καὶ σχολὴν εὖ διαθέσθαι, καὶ ἀδικούμενον [δύνασθαι] φέρειν.” προσέταττε δὲ καὶ ταῦτα· γλώττης κρατεῖν, καὶ μάλιστα ἐν συμποσίῳ. μὴ κακολογεῖν τοὺς πλησίον· ειʼ δὲ μή, ἀκούσεσθαι ἐφʼ οἷς λυπήσεσθαι. μὴ ἀπειλεῖν μηδενί· γυναικῶδες γάρ. ταχύτερον ἐπὶ τὰς ἀτυχίας τῶν φίλων ἢ ἐπὶ τὰς εὐτυχίας πορεύεσθαι. γάμον εὐτελῆ ποιεῖσθαι. τὸν τεθνηκότα μὴ κακολογεῖν. γῆρας τιμᾶν. φυλάττειν ἑαυτόν. ζημίαν αἱρεῖσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ κέρδος αἰσχρόν· ἡ μὲν γὰρ ἅπαξ ἐλύπησε, τὸ δὲ διὰ παντός. ἀτυχοῦντι μὴ ἐπεγγελᾶν. ἰσχυρὸν ὄντα πρᾷον εἶναι, ὅπως οἱ πλησίον αἰδῶνται μᾶλλον ἢ φοβῶνται. μανθάνειν τῆς αὑτοῦ οἰκίας καλῶς προστατεῖν. τὴν γλῶτταν μὴ προτρέχειν τοῦ νοῦ. θυμοῦ κρατεῖν. μαντικὴν
μὴ ἐχθαίρειν. μὴ ἐπιθυμεῖν ἀδυνάτων. ἐν ὁδῷ μὴ σπεύδειν. λέγοντα μὴ κινεῖν τὴν χεῖρα· μανικὸν γάρ. νόμοις πείθεσθαι. ἠρεμίᾳ χρῆσθαι.
φασὶ δʼ αὐτὸν καὶ Αἰσώπου πυθέσθαι,
The accusative is the subject of the infinitive verb: to ask

He says that when he asked Aesop

ὁ Ζεὺς τί εἴη ποιῶν·
That which Zeus might be doing: what Zeus was up to
Optative + participle

τὸν δὲ φάναι,
He told him
“τὰ μὲν ὑψηλὰ ταπεινῶν, τὰ δὲ ταπεινὰ ὑψῶν.”
On one hand the high are being humbled
And on the other, the humble are being raised.
High=raised=proud
He is bringing down the high, and raising up the low.
The word for “humble” here has no air of Christian morality: it sounds more like debased or lowly.

ἐρωτηθεὶς τίνι διαφέρουσιν
Being asked what distinguishes
What thing is distinguishing

οἱ πεπαιδευμένοι τῶν ἀπαιδεύτων,
Those who are in a state of having been educated from those not educated
The genitive marks the object being compared: how to the educated differ from the uneducated
ἔφη, “ἐλπίσιν ἀγαθαῖς.”
He said, in [their] good hope: the educated have a better basis for hope?

τί δύσκολον,
What is difficult?
“τὸ τὰ ἀπόρρητα σιωπῆσαι,
ἀπόρρητος, ον, (ἀπερῶ) forbidden, ἀπόρρητον πόλει though it was forbidden to the citizens, Soph.; τὰ ἀπόρρητα prohibited exports, contraband articles, Ar.
II. not to be spoken, that should not be spoken, Lat. tacendus, ἀπ. ποιεῖσθαι to keep secret, Hdt.; κύριος καὶ ῥητῶν καὶ ἀπορρήτων, of Philip, like dicenda tacenda, Dem.: ἀπόρρητον, τό, a state-secret, Ar.
2. of sacred things, ineffable, Eur.
3. unfit to be spoken, abominable, Plat.

The hidden to keep silent
καὶ σχολὴν εὖ διαθέσθαι,
and leisure well to be appointed

καὶ ἀδικούμενον [δύνασθαι] φέρειν.
And injustice to be able to bear

” προσέταττε δὲ καὶ ταῦτα·
γλώττης κρατεῖν, καὶ μάλιστα ἐν συμποσίῳ.
Hold your tongue: especially if you’ve at a symposium: a drinking banquet.
μὴ κακολογεῖν τοὺς πλησίον· ειʼ δὲ μή, ἀκούσεσθαι ἐφʼ οἷς λυπήσεσθαι.
Don’t slander your neighbor, if you do, you’ll end up hearing things which hurt you.
μὴ ἀπειλεῖν μηδενί· γυναικῶδες γάρ.
Don’t threaten anyone — ever; it’s womanly.
Better, it shows you’re weak.
ταχύτερον ἐπὶ τὰς ἀτυχίας τῶν φίλων
Be quicker upon your friends’ misfortune

ἢ ἐπὶ τὰς εὐτυχίας πορεύεσθαι.
Than upon their good fortune to go.

γάμον εὐτελῆ ποιεῖσθαι.
Have a cheap wedding

εὐ-τελής, ές, (τέλος) easily paid for, cheap, Hdt., Plat., etc.; εὐτελέστερα δὲ τὰ δεινά the danger would be more cheaply met, Thuc.:—Adv. -λῶς, at a cheap rate, Xen.
2. mean, paltry, worthless, Aesch.; εὐτελεστέρα ἄσκησις paltry, requiring no exertion, Xen.
II. thrifty, frugal, Id.

tὸν τεθνηκότα μὴ κακολογεῖν.
Those in the state of have been dead to not speak evil about.
γῆρας τιμᾶν.
Honor old age
φυλάττειν ἑαυτόν.
To protect/set a guard yourself.

ζημίαν αἱρεῖσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ κέρδος αἰσχρόν·
A loss is to be chosen rather than