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Temple-of-Artemis

Acts 19 records a riot in Ephesus. The work of Paul in Ephesus led to a decline in the idolatrous worship of Artemis. The worshippers of Artemis took great offense at the declining worship of their goddess and proceeded to riot; but like all riots, “most of them did not know why they had come together.”

Antipater says the beauty of that temple outshone all other wonders of the world:

I have gazed upon the towering walls of Babylon, where chariots raced;
And upon the Zeus of Alpheus
And upon the hanging gardens
And upon the Colossus of the Sun
And upon endless work for towering pyramids;
But when I saw
The divine house of Artemis,
They all did fade away:
Apart from Olympus itself,
The sun never gazed upon such a sight.

 

Greek Anthology, Book IX, number 58.

Here is the record of the riot:

Acts 19:21–41 (ESV)

A Riot at Ephesus

21 Now after these events Paul resolved in the Spirit to pass through Macedonia and Achaia and go to Jerusalem, saying, “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.” 22 And having sent into Macedonia two of his helpers, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed in Asia for a while.

23 About that time there arose no little disturbance concerning the Way. 24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines of Artemis, brought no little business to the craftsmen. 25 These he gathered together, with the workmen in similar trades, and said, “Men, you know that from this business we have our wealth. 26 And you see and hear that not only in Ephesus but in almost all of Asia this Paul has persuaded and turned away a great many people, saying that gods made with hands are not gods. 27 And there is danger not only that this trade of ours may come into disrepute but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis may be counted as nothing, and that she may even be deposed from her magnificence, she whom all Asia and the world worship.”

28 When they heard this they were enraged and were crying out, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” 29 So the city was filled with the confusion, and they rushed together into the theater, dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, Macedonians who were Paul’s companions in travel. 30 But when Paul wished to go in among the crowd, the disciples would not let him. 31 And even some of the Asiarchs, who were friends of his, sent to him and were urging him not to venture into the theater. 32 Now some cried out one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had come together. 33 Some of the crowd prompted Alexander, whom the Jews had put forward. And Alexander, motioning with his hand, wanted to make a defense to the crowd. 34 But when they recognized that he was a Jew, for about two hours they all cried out with one voice, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”

35 And when the town clerk had quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, who is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is temple keeper of the great Artemis, and of the sacred stone that fell from the sky? 36 Seeing then that these things cannot be denied, you ought to be quiet and do nothing rash. 37 For you have brought these men here who are neither sacrilegious nor blasphemers of our goddess. 38 If therefore Demetrius and the craftsmen with him have a complaint against anyone, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls. Let them bring charges against one another. 39 But if you seek anything further, it shall be settled in the regular assembly. 40 For we really are in danger of being charged with rioting today, since there is no cause that we can give to justify this commotion.” 41 And when he had said these things, he dismissed the assembly.

Here is the Greek Text along with my translation notes:

58.—ΑΝΤΙΠΑΤΡΟΥ
Καὶ κραναᾶς Βαβυλῶνος ἐπίδρομον ἅρμασι τεῖχος

καὶ τὸν ἐπ᾿ Ἀλφειῷ Ζᾶνα κατηυγασάμην,

κάπων τ᾿ αἰώρημα, καὶ Ἠελίοιο κολοσσόν,

καὶ μέγαν αἰπεινᾶν πυραμίδων κάματον,

5
μνᾶμά τε Μαυσωλοῖο πελώριον· ἀλλ᾿ ὅτ᾿ ἐσεῖδον

Ἀρτέμιδος νεφέων ἄχρι θέοντα δόμον,

κεῖνα μὲν ἠμαύρωτο καὶ ἦν, ἴδε νόσφιν Ὀλύμπου

Ἅλιος οὐδέν πω τοῖον ἐπηυγάσατο.

Καὶ κραναᾶς Βαβυλῶνος ἐπίδρομον ἅρμασι τεῖχος

And of the towering of Babylon they ran chariots on [the] walls

κράνα, Dor. for κρήνη.

The genitives mark the direct object of the verb gaze-upon (in the next line).

καὶ τὸν ἐπ᾿ Ἀλφειῷ Ζᾶνα κατηυγασάμην,

And the [statue]upon by Alphas [the sculptor]of Zeus I gazed upon

Zan is Doric for Zeus.

κατ-αυγάζω, f. σω, to shine upon: Med. to gaze at, see, Anth. Hence καταυγασμός
f. future tense
Med. medium, middle voice
Anth. Anthology
H.G. Liddell, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996), 417.
Dor. in Doric Greek

κάπων τ᾿ αἰώρημα, καὶ Ἠελίοιο κολοσσόν,

and of the hanging gardens, and the colossus of the Sun

t’=te
κῆπος , Dor.κᾶπος (also Inscr.Cypr. 135.20 H.), ὁ,
A. [select] garden, orchard, or plantation, Od.7.129, 24.247, 338; “πολυδένδρεος” 4.737; of any rich, highly cultivated region, as Ἀφροδίτας κᾶπος, i.e. Cyrene, Pi. P.5.24; Διὸς κ., i.e. Libya, ib.9.53 (but Διὸς κῆποι, also of heaven, S. Fr.320 (lyr.); Φοίβου παλαιὸς κ., of the eastern sky, ib.956, cf.Pl.Smp. 203b; cf. “Ὠκεανοῦ κ.” Ar.Nu.271); “κ. Εὐβοίας” S.Fr.24; οἱ Μίδεω κῆποι, in Macedonia, Hdt.8.138; of the country round Panormus, Call. Hist.2; the enclosure for the Olympic games, Pi.O.3.24; οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν κ. the scholars of Epicurus, because he taught in a garden, S.E.M. 9.64, cf. D.L.10.10; οἱ Ἀδώνιδος κ., v. Ἀδωνις; οἱ Ταντάλου κ., prov. of illusory pleasures, Philostr.VS1.20.1: metaph., Χαρίτων νέμομαι κᾶπον, i.e. poetic art, Pi.O.9.27; “ἐκ Μουσῶν κ. τινῶν . . δρεπόμενοι τὰ μέλη” Pl.Ion534a; “τοὺς ἐν τοῖς γράμμασι κ. σπείρειν” Id.Phdr. 276d.
II. [select] a fashion of cropping the hair, Poll.2.29, Ael.Dion.Fr. 230.
III. [select] pudenda muliebria, D.L.2.116.
IV. [select] v.l. for κῆβος (q.v.).

LSJ

αἰώρ-ημα , ατος, τό,
A.that which is hung up or hovers, Lyc.1080.
2. hanging cord, halter, E.Hel.353 (lyr.); hanging slings or chains, Id.Or.984 (lyr.).
καὶ μέγαν αἰπεινᾶν πυραμίδων κάματον,

and great [modifies labor] towering/high of the pyramids [genitive of direct object] labor/effort

κάμνω, (lengthd. from the Root ΚΑΜ): κᾰμοῦμαι:—aor. 2 ἔκᾰμον, inf. καμεῖν, Ep. subj. redupl. κεκάμω, 3 sing. κεκάμῃσι, 3 pl. κεκάμωσι:—pf. κέκμηκα; 3 pl. plqpf. ἐκεκμήκεσαν; Ep. part. κεκμηώς, κεκμηῶτι, κεκμηῶτα, acc. pl. κεκμηότας:—Med., Ep. aor. 2 καμόμην:
I. trans. to work. of smiths work, σκῆπτρον, τὸ μὲν Ἥφαιστος κάμε which he wrought, Il.; κ. νῆας Od.
II. Med. to win by toil, τὰς (sc. γυναῖκας) αὐτοὶ καμόμεσθα Il. 2. to work or till by labour, Od.
III. intr. to work, labour, Thuc.:—then, to be weary, ἀνδρὶ δὲ κεκμηῶτι μένος οἶνος ἀέξει Il.; οὐδέ τι γυῖα κάμνει nor is he weary in limb, Ib.; περὶ δʼ ἔγχεϊ χεῖρα καμεῖται he will have his hand weary in grasping the spear, Ib.:—c. part., κάμνει πολεμίζων, ἐλαύνων is weary of fighting, rowing, Ib.; οὐκ ἔκαμον τανύων I found no trouble in stringing the bow, i.e. did it without trouble, Od.; οὔτοι καμοῦμαι λέγουσα I shall never be tired of saying, Aesch., etc.
2. to be sick or ill, suffer under illness, οἱ κάμνοντες the sick, Hdt., etc.; so, κάμνειν νόσον Eur.; κ. τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς Hdt.
3. generally, to suffer, be distressed or afflicted, στρατοῦ καμόντος Aesch.; οὐ καμεῖ will not have to complain, Soph.; οὐκ ἴσον καμὼν ἐμοὶ λύπης not having borne an equal share of grief with me, Id.
4. οἱ καμόντες (aor. part.) those who have done their work, Lat. defuncti, i.e. the dead, Hom.; so, κεκμηκότες Eur., Thuc.

H.G. Liddell, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996), 398.
μνᾶμά τε Μαυσωλοῖο πελώριον·

and the tomb of Mausolus the gigantic one

πελώριος, ον, Like πέλωρος, gigantic, Hom.: of things, huge, ἔγχος, λᾶας, κύματα Id.; τὰ πρὶν πελώρια the mighty things, or mighty ones, of old,
H.G. Liddell, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996), 618.
ἀλλ᾿ ὅτ᾿ ἐσεῖδον

when I saw

εἶδον Root ϜΙΔ, Lat. video to see: not used in act. pres., ὁράω being used instead; but pres. is used in Mid., v. εἴδομαι; aor2 εἶδον retains the proper sense of to see: but perf. οἶδα, (I have seen) means I know, and is used as a pres. The form ὄψομαι is used as fut., ἑόρα_κα or ἑώρα_κα as perf.
1.to see, perceive, behold, Hom., etc.; after a Noun, θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι a marvel to behold, Il.; οἰκτρὸς ἰδεῖν Aesch.
2.to look at, εἰς ὦπα ἰδέσθαι to look him in the face, Il., etc.
3.to look so and so, ἀχρεῖον ἰδών looking helpless, id=Il.
4.to see mentally, ἰδέσθαι ἐν φρεσίν “to see in his mind’s eye, ” Hom.
Ἀρτέμιδος νεφέων ἄχρι θέοντα δόμον

Of Artemis of the clouds until divine house
κεῖνα μὲν ἠμαύρωτο καὶ ἦν, ἴδε νόσφιν Ὀλύμπου
on one hand those had become invisible; apart from Olympus

ἀμαυρ-όω , Sol. and X., v.infr.: fut.
A.“-ώσω” Simon.4.5: aor. “ἀμαύρωσα” Pi.P.12.13, “ἠμαύρωσα” AP9.24, Plb.6.15.7, etc.: pf. “ἠμαύρωκα” Str.8.1.1:—Med., aor. opt. “ἀμαυρώσαιτο” Aristaenet.1.16:—Pass., Philist. ap.Phot.p.88R.: pf. “ἠμαύρωμαι” Plu.Per.11: aor. ἀμαυρώθην (without augm.) Hdt.9.10:—make dim, faint, or obscure, “ἡ σελήνη ἀ. τὰ ἴχνη” X.Cyn.5.4; “ἄστρα ἠμαύρωσε ἥλιος” AP9.24 (Leon.):—Pass., become dark or dim, ὁ ἥλιος ἀμαυρώθη Hdt.l.c.; “ὄμμα-ούμενον” Hp.Prorrh. 1.46; “φορτί᾽ ἀμαυρωθείη” perished utterly, Hes. Op.693; “τὸ θερμὸν μικρὸν ὂν ἐν μεγάλοις ἀ.” Arist. PA667a19.
2. render invisible, PMag. Berol.1.102.
3. blind, “ὄμματα” Tab.Defix.Aud.241.13 (Carthage, ii/iii A.D.), etc.
II. metaph. in same sense, “εὐνομία . . ὕβριν ἀ.” Sol.4.35; “ἐντάφιον . . οὔτ᾽ εὐρὼς οὔτ᾽ . . ἀμαυρώσει χρόνος” Simon.4.5, cf. Call.Iamb.1.429; “χρόνος δ᾽ ἀμαυροῖ πάντα” S.Fr.954, cf. Str. l. c.; “τίς ἄρα σὰν . . ἀμαυροῖ ζόαν;” E.Hipp.816; “πολλοί γε . . τῷ θράσει τὰς συμφορὰς ζητοῦσ᾽ ἀμαυροῦν” Id.Fr.416; “ἀ. δόξαν” Plb.20.4.3; “τὰς ἄλλας κακίας” Plu.Crass.2; “οἶκον -ώσας ὤλετο” IG12(7).107 (Amorgos); deface a tomb, ib.12(9).1129.22 (Chalcis):—weaken, impair, “πόνος πόνον ἀ.” Hp.Aph.2.46, cf. Aër.23, Aret.CD2.6; ἡ νεαρὴ [τροφὴ] ἠμαύρωσε τὴν παλαιήν ib.13:—Pass., Thphr.HP9.14.3; “ἡ ἡδονὴ -οῦται” Arist.EN1175a10; ἠμαυρωμένος τὸ ἀξίωμα, τῇ δόξῃ, Plu.Per.11, Cor. 31; to be dazzled, “περὶ τὸν χρυσόν” Onos.1.8.

νόσφῐ, before a vowel or metri grat. -φῐν, though ι may also be elided:
I. as Adv. of Place, aloof, apart, afar, away, Hom.; ν. ἰδών having looked aside, Od.; νόσφιν ἀπό aloof from, Il.; νόσφιν ἤ. ., like πλὴν ἤ. . , besides, except, Theocr.
II. as Prep. aloof or away from, far from, Hom., Hes.
2. without, forsaken or unaided by, Hom., Aesch.
3. of mind or disposition, νόσφιν Ἀχαιῶν βουλεύειν apart from the Achaians, i.e. of a different way of thinking, Il.; ν. Δήμητρος, Lat. clam Cerere, without her knowledge, h. Hom.
4. beside, except, νόσφι Ποσειδάωνος Od.; νόσφʼὨκεανοῖο Il.

H.G. Liddell, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996), 535.

Ἅλιος οὐδέν πω τοῖον ἐπηυγάσατο.

The sun never upon such looked.

ἐπαυγάζομαι
Mid. to look at by the light, Anth.