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Primary obligation:

Create disciples: Matthew 28:18-20

1) Baptism — introduction into congregation

2) Teach them to observe


Means of instruction:

1) Propositional

A) Congregational

i) Entire congregation

ii) Smaller gatherings

iii) Personal (counseling)

iv) Other than elder

a) one – another

b) particular elements, e.g., Titus 2

2) Example

A) Right life

i) Elders

ii) Everyone in congregation does this whether good or ill

B) Exhortation/encouragement

i) Elders

ii) One-anothers

Immediate discipleship of the Spirit.


  1. Confirming that everyone in our charge is being instructed

A) Generally

B)Specifically approriate instruction

2) Confirming that everyone is leading a godly life

Mechanism: Instruct enough men well enough so that the individual instruction, exhortation, example and confirmation can take place. [2 Timothy]


Outline of the argument in 1st Timothy

Thesis: We seek to create a godly life (1:5). This is done primarily by giving propositional instruction –which includes confronting error & selecting appropriate instructors (1:3-4; 1:18-20; 2:1; 2:12; 3:1-7, 4:1-5, 4:6-10; 4:11; 6:2b; 6:20-21). Right doctrine leads to right life (1:6-11; 1:18-20). In addition to propositional instruction, be a tangible example of proper (1 Tim. 4:15-16; 6:11).


This is implicit in the qualifications of elders: First, they must be of a godly character: their character demonstrates their fitness for office and fitness as an example. Second, they must be able to instruct.


The letter is structured around the command to teach right doctrine:


1:3-4: Initial command


3 As I urged you when I was going to Macedonia, remain at Ephesus so that you may charge certain persons not to teach any different doctrine,

4 nor to devote themselves to myths and endless genealogies, which promote speculations rather than the stewardship from God that is by faith.


6:20-21: Closing command


20 O Timothy, guard the deposit entrusted to you. Avoid the irreverent babble and contradictions of what is falsely called “knowledge,”21 for by professing it some have swerved from the faith. Grace be with you.


Command: Protect the doctrine delivered to you.

Enemy: those who teach a different doctrine.

Purpose: Right doctrine leads to faith.

End sought:


The aim of our charge is love that issues from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith.

Doctrine leads to life: Throughout the letter, Paul ties proper doctrine to proper conduct.

1:6-11 charts the movement from wrong doctrine to wrong life. He ends the proposition that a sinful life does not “accordance with the gospel of the glory of the blessed God with which I have been entrusted” (v. 11).

vv.12-17: Paul gives praise that God who transformed him by faith.

vv.18-20: Paul makes two argument to encourage Timothy to this work: (1) God selected him for this work (v. 18; 2 Tim. 1:6); (2) those who have swerved from the doctrine have shipwrecked (v. 19-20).

Mechanics of instruction:

Prayer for leaders/peaceful life: 2:1-7

Selection of instructors

Men, not women: 2:8-14

Only certain men: 3:1-7

Selection of deacons (men and women): 3:8-13

Encouragement and warning:

The supernatural redemptive nature of faith: 3:14-16

Warning about false teaching: 4:1-5

Train yourself: 4:6-10

Avoid needless wrangling 4:7

Train to godliness: 4:8

Remember the end: 4:9


Train others: 4:11-16

Propositional instruction: 4:11

Be an example for others to imitate: 4:12-15


Details on manner of life: 5:1-6:3

Effectively fleshes out the household codes in Ephesians and Colossians.

Notes: a defective life denies the faith (5:8).

Special rules involving widows: 5:9-16

Special rules respecting elders: 5:17-25

These rules concern the conduct and treatment of elders. Thus, this relates to the imitation basis of discipleship.

Instruction about instruction: 6:2b-5

Give these instructions: 6:2b

Those who pursue a different doctrine will be those who create division: 6:3-5

Instruction about example: 6:6-16

Warning about contentment: 6:6-10

Warning about godliness: 6:11-16


Side note for the rich :6:17-19

Guard the doctrine. Remember doctrine affects life. 6:20-21

Second Timothy


Encouragement to the work: chapter 1.

Train men to do the work: chapter 2

Train faithful men to do the work 2:1-2

Don’t get distracted from this task: 2:3-7

Content of the Gospel 2:8-13

Doing the work:

Do not permit digressive quarrels 2:14

Be competent  with the Scripture 2:15

Protect doctrine! 2:16-19

Prepare for work: 2:20-21

Avoid distractions: 2:22-26

There will be false teachers: 3:1-9 [Titus 3, the “factious man”, ie. false teacher]

But Scripture is sufficient for the work: 3:10-17

Preach the word: 4:1-4

Counterpart to the encouragement of chapter 1: I am being poured out (4:6-8). Remember to encourage me (4:9-18)

closing 4:19-22



Appoint elders to do the work: 1:5-9

Good conduct

Able to teach

Watch out for the sins of your environment 1:10-16

Instruct: 2:1

Household codes 2:2-9

Teach them to be instructors and examples of one-another

Note the conduct of the intra-congregational instruction

You be an example 2:8-9

The doctrine creates right conduct 2:11-14

Instruct: 2:15

Instruct in good works: 3:1-10

Watch out for those who cause division [i.e., teach a different doctrine]