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In marking morality one could count either the bare physical act or the motivation which gives rise to the act. For instance if I drive my car over another human being does it make a moral difference whether the act was caused by a muscle spasm which jerked the wheel or from hatred?

Here Augustine is considered the seat of moral culpability:

Therefore, let this stand as a firmly established truth: The virtue which governs a good life controls from the seat of the soul every member of the body, and the body is rendered holy by the act of a holy will.

Thus, as long as the will remains unyielding, no crime, beyond the victim’s power to prevent it without sin, and which is perpetrated on the body or in the body, lays any guilt on the soul.

Augustine, The City of God

Book I, 16