1 Clement, 1 Clement 12, Apostolic Fathers, Apostolic Preaching of the Cross, blood, First Clement, First Clement Translation, historical theology, Justification by Faith, Rahab
Through faith and kindness, Rahab the prostitute was saved.
When Joshua the son of Nun had sent spies into Jericho, the king of that land knew they had come to spy out the land. So the king sent men to seize the spies so they could kill them. It was then that kind Rahab welcomed the spies: she hid them beneath the flax on the roof.
The king’s men appeared and said, “The spies who came into this land came in here. The King orders you to turn them over to us.”
She answered, “The men you are seeking did come in here; but immediately they went out and on their way.” With that she motioned with her hand pointing them in the wrong direction.
Later she said to the spies, “I, I know that the Lord, your God, has already turned this city right here into your hands. I know this because great fear and trembling for you has fallen on everyone who lives here. So, when you come and take this city, recuse me and all my father’s house.”
They said to her, “It will be as you have said: When you know that we are here, bring everyone under your roof – there they will be saved. Now, if we find someone outside of your house, they will be destroyed.”
Then granted to give her a token, some scarlet she should hang from her house.
Doing this made clear that redemption is through the blood of Christ, for all those who believe and hope in God.
You see beloved, not only faith – but prophecy is in this woman.
Clement sets before the Corinthians the example of Rahab who was saved by faith and hospitality (of a rather extreme sort). Her physical salvation from the destruction of Jericho is used as an example of the ultimate salvation available in Christ:
πρόδηλον ποιοῦντες ὅτι διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ Κυρίου λύτρωσις ἔσται πᾶσιν τοῖς πιστεύουσιν καὶ ἐλπίζουσιν ἐπὶ τὸν Θεόν
Making plain beforehand that redemption is through the blood of Christ for all those who believe and hope in God.
By drawing this connection, Clement is making a veiled accusation that the Corinthians are demonstrating no true faith – and thus are not saved (very much in the model of James 2).
Διὰ πίστιν καὶ φιλοξενίαν
By means of –through – faith and hospitality
ἐσώθη Ῥαὰβ ἡ πόρνη
[she]was saved Rahab the prostitute
Was saved: aorist passive. She was saved by the actions of the spies and Israel. Yet, she was ultimately saved – as is the point of Clement’s account – by the blood of Christ by means of her faith.
ἐκπεμφθέντων γὰρ ὑπὸ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ τοῦ Ναυὴ
For being sent out by Joshua of Nun (the son of Nun)
In Greek “Joshua” and “Jesus” are the same name. The specification of Joshua the son of Nu.
Sent out: an aorist passive participle: the sending occurred prior to the salvation.
κατασκόπων εἰς τὴν Ἰεριχώ
spies into Jericho
The spies actually came into the city. Jericho is an indeclinable proper noun.
ἔγνω ὁ βασιλεὺς τῆς γῆς
[he] learned the king of the land
The: that particular land (there many kings in Canaan).
ὅτι ἥκασιν κατασκοπεῦσαι τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν
that they had entered to spy out their country
Had entered/were present. The infinitive gives the purpose of their presence: to spy out the land.
καὶ ἐξέπεμψεν ἄνδρας τοὺς συλλημψομένους αὐτούς
and he sent men to apprehend them
To apprehend is a future middle participle: logically and grammatically, it is subsequent to the action of the main verb – the king sent out men. The participle indicates purpose. Wallace notes that the future participle is “always” telic (636). The king sent the men for the purpose of arresting the spies.
ὅπως συλλημφθέντες θανατωθῶσιν
in order that being apprehended they should be killed
Being apprehended – when they will be apprehended: aorist passive participle. The aorist does not indicate that the apprehension has already occurred; but rather establishes the logical connection: when the arrest has been complete, they will be killed.
Should be killed: a future, passive subjunctive.
ἡ οὖν φιλόξενος Ῥαὰβ εἰσδεξαμένη αὐτοὺς
Therefore the hospitable Rahab to welcome them
Therefore: Rahab knew the spies would be killed. Her actions were for the purpose of protecting the spies.
ἔκρυψεν εἰς τὸ ὑπερῷον ὑπὸ τὴν λινοκαλάμην
hid [them] upstairs under the flax
ἐπισταθέντων δὲ τῶν παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ λεγόντων·
But approaching/while standing [some men] from the king and saying
Approaching/standing by: this is subordinate to the action of speaking: a temporal participle, contemporaneous with the action of speaking.
Speaking/saying: a present active participle: it introduces the action of the main verb.
Πρὸς σὲ εἰσῆλθον οἱ κατάσκοποι τῆς γῆς ἡμῶν·
They came to you the spies of our land [the one’s spying].
Individualizing and particularizing – note the article & “our” land. Rahab, we’re all in this together.
ἐξάγαγε αὐτούς, ὁ γὰρ βασιλεὺς οὕτως κελεύει·
send them out, for thus the King commands
ἡ δὲ ἀπεκρίθη
But she answered
Εἰσῆλθον μὲν οἱ ἄνδρες,
First the men entered
The “men” is answered with the alla – not de, as most common. On one hand they came in, on the other, they went out.
οὕς ζητεῖτε, πρός με,
those you seek [came] to me
ἀλλὰ εὐθέως ἀπῆλθον
But immediately they went out
καὶ πορεύονται τῇ ὁδῷ·
and they went in the way
ὑποδεικνύουσα αὐτοῖς ἐναλλάξ
making plain to them crosswise
Making plain/indicating: present participle: the participle shows the outcome of the main verb: she answered.
ἐναλλάξ: crosswise, in the opposite direction. ἀλλαχοῦ: go in the other direction.
Καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς τοὺς ἄνδρας·
And she said to the men
Knowing I know
knowing I personally know
This sort of complementary participle plus finite verb is similar to the emphatic construction in Hebrew: e.g., “You shall surely die” (מ֥וֹת תָּמֽוּת the infinite absolute following by finite verb). The emphatic nature of the construction is increased by the unnecessary pronoun: knowing, I know – I.
ὅτι κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὑμῶν
that the Lord your God
Hoti introduces the content of her knowledge.
παραδὶδωσιν ὑμῖν τήν πόλιν ταύτην,
delivers to you this city
The present for the future: “when an action still future is to be designed as good as already present, either because it is already firmly resolved upon or because it follows according to some unalterable law” (Winer, 265). The accusative is the direct object, God is delivering the city ….
Tauten: This city. No ambiguity would result without the demonstrative pronoun – however, Rahab’s language throughout shows extreme emotional agitation: I, I know that the Lord your God is giving you this very city!
ὁ γὰρ φόβος καὶ ὁ τρόμος ὑμῶν ἐπέπεσεν τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν αὐτήν.
For the fear and trembling of you fell upon those dwelling in her
For gives the reason for the certainty of Rahab’s conclusion.
ὡς ἐὰν οὖν γένηται λαβεῖν αὐτὴν ὑμᾶς,
as it will be therefore that you take her [the city]
ⓒ ὡς ἄν or ὡς ἐάν w. subjunctive of the time of an event in the future when, as soon as.
William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 1106.
διασώσατέ με καὶ τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός μου
absolutely save me and my father’s house
Rahab’s intensity of language continues: an aorist imperative and an emphatic version save: rescue.
καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῇ
and they said to her
Dative of indirect object.
Ἔσται οὕτως ὡς ἐλάλησας ἡμῖν.
It shall be thus as you spoke to us
ὡς ἐὰν οὖν γνῷς παραγινομένους ἡμᾶς,
When you know of our coming to here (appearing)
Our coming here/our presence: In the future, when you know (aorist – the event has taken place) and simultaneously we are present.
συνάξεις πάντας τοὺς σοὺς ὑπὸ τὸ τέγος σου,
gather together all those under your roof
You will gather: the indicative is being used as a substitute for the imperative: gather: “The future indicative is sometimes used for a command, almost always in OT quotations (due to a literal translation of the Hebrew)” (Wallace, 452)
and they will be rescued
The rescue will come: indicative not subjunctive.
ὅσοι γὰρ ἐὰν εὑρεθῶσιν ἔξω τῆς οἰκίας, ἀπολοῦνται 7
But as many as may be found outside your house, they will be destroyed
A third class condition: ean + subjunctive: there is a logical connection: If they are found outside, they will be destroyed.
καὶ προσέθεντο αὐτῇ δοῦναι σημεῖον,
and they granted to gave her a sign
προστίθημι: to set before, therefore (here) togrant.
To give: a complementary infinitive.
ὅπως κρεμάσῃ ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου αὐτῆς κόκκινον,
thus she should hang from out of her house a scarlet 
It does not specify exactly what was scarlet: they just gave her a “scarlet” for her to hang.
making clear beforehand
ὅτι διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ Κυρίου λύτρωσις
that through the blood of Christ redemption/ransom
For lutrosis, see Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross.
ἔσται πᾶσιν τοῖς πιστεύουσιν καὶ ἐλπίζουσιν ἐπὶ τὸν Θεόν.
is to all those who believe and hope upon God
This is as emphatic a statement of justification by faith as could be found in Luther or Calvin.
You see, beloved
οὐ μόνον πίστις ἀλλὰ προφητεία ἐν τῇ γυναικὶ γέγονεν.
Not only faith but prophecy in the woman is found/has been found.