Τούτοις τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ὁσίως πολιτευσαμένοις συνηθροίσθη πολὺ πλῆθος ἐκλεκτῶν, οἵτινες πολλαῖς αἰκίαις καὶ βασάνοις, διὰ ζῆλος παθόντες, ὑπόδειγμα κάλλιστον ἐγένοντο ἐν ἡμῖν. 2 Διὰ ζῆλος διωχθεῖσαι γυναῖκες, Δαναΐδες καὶ Δίρκαι, αἰκίσματα δεινὰ καὶ ἀνόσια παθοῦσαι, ἐπὶ τὸν τῆς πίστεως βέβαιον δρόμον κατήντησαν καὶ ἔλαβον γέρας γενναῖον αἱ ἀσθενεῖς τῷ σώματι. ζῆλος ἀπηλλοτρίωσεν γαμετὰς ἀνδρῶν καὶ ἠλλοίωσεν τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἀδάμ, Τοῦτο νῦν ὀστοῦν ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων μου καἰ σἀρξ ἐκ τῆς σαρκός μου. 4 ζῆλος καὶ ἔρις πόλεις μεγάλας κατέστρεψεν καὶ ἔθνη μεγάλα ἐξερίζωσεν.
Translation: To these holy men are joined a great many of the elect – those many who injustice and torture suffered because of wicked jealousy: they are the great example for us. Wicked jealousy caused even the women to be chased down and ruined – like the Danaids and Dircae – they suffered unspeakable and unholy torments! But, they held fast in faith to the end of their race and received the glorious reward, despite the weakness of the body. Oh, wicked jealousy has separated wives from husband; it mocked the saying of our father Adam, This is bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh. Jealousy and strife have overturned great cites and utterly destroyed great nations.
Comment: Clement draws a contrast in his instruction and counsel: Wicked jealousy led to the torture and death of those Christians who are the greatest example to us.
There are two things here: First, Clement raises the example of imitation in connection with discipleship counseling. We are to become imitators of Christ and thus imitators of those who follow him most closely. Clement writes, these martyrs for the faith are the examples which we must imitate.
He then has placed his letter readers in a difficult spot: You are acting precisely in the manner of the greatest physical enemies of “the elect”. By acting contrary to the elect, they are denying their own election – which puts them outside of the church they are seeking to upset!
Having made his point in the first verse, he then gives additional details of the vicious assault upon the elect because of wicked jealousy. The repetition and detail create an emotional tone by which Clement seeks to get past their refusal to repent: the tactic is to demonstrate the wickedness of the sin so that the person will leave off the sin.
This is an important element in counseling. Often times a professed believer will not leave off a particular sin because the sin presents itself to the one sinning as not too bad – sometimes, the presentation is even as a positive good. Thomas Brooks speaks of this in Precious Remedies (device 2) as a “painting sin with virtues colors”. As a response to this deceit of sin, Brooks writes:
Remedy (3). To look on sin with that eye with which within a short time, we shall see it. Ah, souls! when you shall lie upon a dying bed, and stand before a judgment-seat, sin shall be unmasked, and its dress and robes shall then be taken off, and then it shall appear more vile, filthy, and terrible than hell itself; then, that which formerly appeared most sweet will appear most bitter, and that which appeared most beautiful will appear most ugly, and that which appeared most delightful will then appear most dreadful to the soul. Ah, the shame, the pain, the gall, the bitterness, the horror, the hell that the sight of sin, when its dress is taken off, will raise in poor souls! Sin will surely prove evil and bitter to the soul when its robes are taken off. A man may have the stone who feels no fit of it. Conscience will work at last, though for the present one may feel no fit of accusation. Laban showed himself at parting. Sin will be bitterness in the latter end, when it shall appear to the soul in its own filthy nature.
Clement is seeking to permit his readers to see their sin now for the evil which it truly is. When counseling, when preaching, it is often necessary and best to paint the true evil of sin. This is not a base emotional manipulation, because the description must be truthful. For example, when counseling a spouse regarding immorality, let them truly consider the outcome of their ways and the result of their divorce. Proverbs 5 & 7 (indeed all of Proverbs) uses this particular method of instruction. It is certainly not the only means of achieving the end of repentance, forgiveness and restoration, but does have its rightful place.
Clement plays this card to much effect in this section.
Τούτοις τοῖς ἀνδράσιν: To these men.
Τούτοις τοῖς: The demonstrative adjective this, this one; masculine, plural, dative. There are three demonstratives in Classical Greek: ekeinos, ‘ode, and ‘outos. Here, the demonstrative draws attention to the particular instances set forth in the preceding sections – but not necessarily present with the speaker at the time of speaking (Hansen & Quinn, 243). Hansen & Quinn note, “A noun modified by οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτοmust be accompanied by the article. The demonstrative usually proceeds the article. It may (rarely) follow the noun” (242).
The dative is controlled by the principle verb to join/bring together, indirect object.
ὁσίως πολιτευσαμένοις: conducting themselves in a holy manner/leading a holy life.
Πολιτευσαμένοις: An aorist middle/passive participle, dative plural (modifies “men” which was in the dative).
“πολιτεύω politeúō; fut. politeúsō, from polítēs (4177), citizen. To live as a free citizen. In the NT, a pass. deponent politeúomai, to be a citizen of a state, to live as a good citizen, to conduct oneself according to the laws and customs of a state. It generally means to live or to order one’s life and conduct in accordance with a certain rule. With an adv. in Phil. 1:27, to behave worthily of the gospel. With a dat. in Acts 23:1, to live worthily of or for God or according to His will” (Spiros Zodhiates, The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament, electronic ed. (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2000)).
Συνηθροίσθη: it was/there was joined together with. BDAG gives the following entry (definition 2):
to link w. others in a common experience, unite with, be joined to. Pass., w. act. sense w. dat. τοῖς ἀνδράσιν συνηθροίσθη πολὺ πλῆθος ἐκλεκτῶν 1 Cl 6:1.—DELG s.v. ἀθρόος. M-M.
William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 964.
πολὺ πλῆθος ἐκλεκτῶν: full many, a great number of the elect.
The phrase πολὺ πλῆθος is followed by a genitive. This is a genitive of apposition: “The substantive [here, elect] in the genitive resrs to the same things as the substantive [an exceeding great number] to which it is related. The equation, however, is not exact. The genitive typically states a specific example that is a part of the larger category named by the head noun” (Wallace, 95). Here the head noun would be “a great many” the genitive explains: of the elect.
Examples of this phrase are quite common in Greek literature. It is found in Xenophon
τὸ δὲ πολὺ πλῆθος τῶν Τριβαλλῶν ἔφυγεν ὀπίσω ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν
Arrian, Flavii Arriani Anabasis Alexandri, ed. A. G. Roos (Medford, MA: in aedibus B. G. Teubneri, 1907), 4. As in 1 Clement the construction is followed by the genitive: a great number of the Triballoi. Likewise the phrase is followed by the genitive in Plutarch:
τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον εἰς πολὺ πλῆθος ἀριθμοῦ συνάγουσιν
Plutarch, vol. 3, Moralia, ed. Gregorius N. Bernardakis (Medford, MA: Teubner, 1891), 83. Many additional examples could be given.
οἵτινες: these [persons/people], those who. BDAG, definition 3:
Quite oft. ὅστις takes the place of the simple rel. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ; this occurs occasionally in ancient Gk. usage (s. Hdt. 4, 8, 1 al.; Thu. 6, 3, 1; Demosth. 38, 6; 17; Kühner-G. II 399f; Schwyzer II 643 lit.), but more freq. in later Gk. (W-S. §24, 14d; B-D-F §293; Mlt. 91f; Rdm.2 75; 77; 226; Psaltes, Grammatik [Byz.] 198; POxy 110, 3; PFay 108, 7 [both II A.D.]; Mayser II/3, 57. On the LXX s. Thackeray 192; TestJob 47:1; ParJer 7:8; Just., D. 88, 1; Tat. 41, 1), esp. in Luke’s writings: to explain a word or a thing εἰς πόλιν Δαυὶδ ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ Lk 2:4 (Hdt. 2, 99 πόλιν ἥτις νῦν Μέμφις καλέεται).
William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 730.
πολλαῖς αἰκίαις καὶ βασάνοις: [these] many mistreated and tortured [the verb is a participle in the following phrase].
αἰκίαις: means extraordinary mistreatment/torture; for example:
The entire race was to be registered individually, not for the hard labor that has been briefly mentioned before, but to be tortured with the outrages that he had ordered, and at the end to be destroyed in the space of a single day
The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1989), 3 Mac 4:14. The related verb αἰκίζομαιmeans to mistreat/torture. The NRSV translates the nominative based on the verb as “the torturers”. But, see,
αἰκία [ῑ], ἡ, Att. for the Ion. ἀεικείη (q.v.), injurious treatment, an affront, outrage, Aesch., etc.
2. in Prose mostly as law-phrase, αἰκίας δίκη an action for assault, less serious than that for ὕβρις, Plat., etc.
H.G. Liddell, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996), 20.
διὰ ζῆλος παθόντες: because of zeal/through zeal (dia + genitive) suffering [the mistreatment and torture]. The delay in the verb places an emphasis on the basis for their suffering: It was jealousy which caused led to their suffering mistreatment.
ὑπόδειγμα κάλλιστον ἐγένοντο ἐν ἡμῖν: they became (aorist middle) the greatest/best/most illustrious example among us/for us.
The matter of example and imitation is a great element of discipleship.
Διὰ ζῆλος διωχθεῖσαι γυναῖκες, Δαναΐδες καὶ Δίρκαιbecause of jealousy women were persecuted like the Daniads and Dircae.
Of the references, Holmes writes, “In ancient mythology, the daughters of Danaus were given as prizes to the winners of a race; thus it is likely that this is a reference to Christian women being raped prior to being martyred. Dirce was tied to the horns of a bull and dragged to death.”
Lightfoot notes this as a corruption in the original text and suggests νεάνιδες παιδίσκαι, young women, slave girls.
αἰκίσματα δεινὰ καὶ ἀνόσια παθοῦσαι: suffering (aorist participle) terrible and unholy tortures. The word for “tortures” is related to αἰκίαις.
ἐπὶ τὸν τῆς πίστεως βέβαιον δρόμον κατήντησαν: over a period of time (epi + accusative, Wallace, 376) the stability of [their] faith the course destination they reached. Lightfoot: “safely reached the goal in the race of faith”.
καὶ ἔλαβον γέρας γενναῖον αἱ ἀσθενεῖς τῷ σώματι: and received the glorious reward despite the weakness in/of [their] bodies.
γέρας γενναῖον: compare τὸ γενναῖον τῆς πίστεως αὐτοῦ κλέος ἔλαβεν, of 1 Clement 5.6.
αἱ ἀσθενεῖς τῷ σώματι: they [being] weak in [their] bodies, that is, despite the weakness of their bodies.
ζῆλος ἀπηλλοτρίωσεν γαμετὰς ἀνδρῶν: jealousy estranged wives from their husbands.
This section seems to allude to Luke 12:52-53.
καὶ ἠλλοίωσεν τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἀδάμ: and transformed the thing said (saying) of our father Adam.
ῥηθὲν: aorist passive participle, accusative, neuter, of εἶπον. Extra credit for anyone who can trace out the transformation from lego to eipon to rhethen.
Τοῦτο νῦν ὀστοῦν ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων μου καἰ σἀρξ ἐκ τῆς σαρκός μου: This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. A quotation from Genesis 2:23, LXX.
ζῆλος καὶ ἔρις πόλεις μεγάλας κατέστρεψεν: Jealousy and strife overturned great cities.
Possibly an allusion to Troy.
καὶ ἔθνη μεγάλα ἐξερίζωσεν: and great nations utterly destroyed (from a verb whose basic meaning is to uproot.