Here is the lesson for “Blessed are the Meek”: blessed-are-the-meek-1
O Lord, I humbly crave that thou wilt let me be little in this world,
that I may be great in another world;
and low here,
that I may be high for ever hereafter.
Let me be low, and feed low, and live low,
so I may live with thee for ever;
let me now be clothed with rags,
so thou wilt clothe me at last with thy robes;
let me now be set upon a dunghill,
so I may at last be advanced to sit with thee upon thy throne.
Lord, make me rather gracious than great,
inwardly holy than outwardly happy,
and rather turn me into my first nothing,
yea, make me worse than nothing,
rather than set me up for a time,
that thou mayest bring me low for ever.
This prayer is found in Precious Remedies for Satan’s Devices by Thomas Brooks, device 8, remedy 6.
conjugalia praecepta, Greek Translation, Hank Williams Sr, marriage, meek, Mind Your Own Business, New Testament Background, Plutarch, Plutarch Moralia, Plutarch translation, Plutarch's Marriage Advice
The prior entry in the Plutarch translation can be found here: https://memoirandremains.wordpress.com/2013/09/18/husbands-who-are-like-a-cold-wind-plutarchs-marriage-advice/
Cato threw a man out of the senate just because the man’s daughter saw him kiss his wife: this may have been a bit excessive. But if it is disgraceful (and it is) to “greet” and kiss and wrap yourselves about each other when someone is watching – how much worse is it to fight and abuse one-another when someone else is around.
What of secret questions and intimacies with your wife? Not to mention correcting and complaining and speaking your mind in the open – letting it fly, as some might say.
Greek Text and Translation Notes:
ὁ Κάτων ἐξέβαλε τῆς βουλῆς τὸν φιλήσαντα τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα τῆς θυγατρὸς παρούσης. τοῦτο μὲν οὖν ἴσως σφοδρότερον ειʼ δʼ αἰσχρόν ἐστιν, ὥσπερ ἐστίν, ἑτέρων παρόντων ἀσπάζεσθαι καὶ φιλεῖν καὶ περιβάλλειν ἀλλήλους, πῶς οὐκ αἴσχιον ἑτέρων παρόντων λοιδορεῖσθαι καὶ διαφέρεσθαι πρὸς ἀλλήλους, καὶ τὰς μὲν ἐντεύξεις καὶ φιλοφροσύνας ἀπορρήτους πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα ποιεῖσθαι, νουθεσίᾳ δὲ καὶ μέμψει καὶ παρρησίᾳ χρῆσθαι φανερᾷ καὶ ἀναπεπταμένῃ ;
ὁ Κάτων ἐξέβαλε τῆς βουλῆς
Cato cast out of the senate
the one who kissed.
The participle with the article being used as a substantive. It is in the accusative case as the direct object of the verb.
τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα.
The wife of himself [his own wife]
τῆς θυγατρὸς παρούσης
in the presence of his daughter
The genitive of place.
τοῦτο μὲν οὖν ἴσως σφοδρότερον
This therefore, on one hand, being perhaps excessive
σφοδρότερον: note the comparative ending.
ειʼ δʼ αἰσχρόν ἐστιν
even if it is shameful [the kiss]
The de answers to the men.
just as it is [shameful]
ἑτέρων παρόντων ἀσπάζεσθαι
when others are present to greet
The verb “to greet” does not have any inherent erotic overtones. However, in connection with the physical affection otherwise described, we must hear some of that here.
καὶ φιλεῖν καὶ περιβάλλειν ἀλλήλους
and to kiss and to throw yourselves about one-another
φιλεῖν: To love. Kataphilein would be more properly to kiss. However, the verb also means to treat affectionately, and thus in context has a physical understanding. Yet by using this word, Plutarch emphasizes the affection over the action.
Περιβάλλειν: Literally, to cast around, such as putting on clothes.
The three infinitives were used to designate either the purpose or the result of being together.
πῶς οὐκ αἴσχιον ἑτέρων παρόντων λοιδορεῖσθαι καὶ διαφέρεσθαι πρὸς ἀλλήλους
How is it not shameful when others are present to revile and fight with one-another.
λοιδορεῖσθαι: to revile, abuse. In 1 Peter 2:23, it is used of the verbal abuse suffered by Jesus.
διαφέρεσθαι: to carry through, thus metaphorically to differ to be better than (carried above?). Here, the emphasis is upon “differ” in a negative manner, thus, “fight”.
καὶ τὰς μὲν ἐντεύξεις καὶ φιλοφροσύνας
and even if the petitions/requests and (acts of) kindness
ἀπορρήτους πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα ποιεῖσθαι
to keep secret with his wife.
ἀπορρήτους means not to be spoken or done. With poein it is used to be mean “secret”:
II. not to be spoken, secret, ἀ. ποιεῖσθαι make a secret of, Hdt.9.94; esp. of state secrets, Ar.Eq.648; “ἐν-τῳ ποιεῖσθαι” X.An.7.6.43; “τἀπόρρητα ποιοῦνται” Lys.12.69; “ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀπορρήτων τοῦ βασιλέως” Plu.Luc.17, cf. OGI 371; ὁ τῶν ἀ. γραμματεύς, = a secretis, [LSJ}
πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα: with his wife.
The article is used for the possessive.
νουθεσίᾳ δὲ καὶ μέμψει
but to admonish and even complain
καὶ παρρησίᾳ χρῆσθαι
and confidence, boldness of speech, to employ/use
φανερᾷ καὶ ἀναπεπταμένῃ ;
apparent/obvious and to let in the open?
Hank Williams, Sr. had a different (and less satisfactory way of managing marital complications): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OSXACfpSwLI
The prior entry in the Plutarch translation project is found here: https://memoirandremains.wordpress.com/2013/09/10/translation-and-notes-plutarchs-marriage-advice-one-who-love-evil-will-gain-evil/
The sun beat the wind.
When the man was whipped by the wind – because the wind was trying to force him to put off his coat by blowing hard – the man simply wrapped himself tight.
Now, afterward, the sun warmed him, becoming hot, then scorching. So, the man took off his coat – and his shirt.
Women are like this. When their husbands take away their trifles and luxuries by force, the women fight and become bitter. But if she is persuaded by words, she will meekly put them away and behave.
This passage has some interesting comparisons to Peter’s instruction to wives. Peter is concerned with the wife’s witness of salvation to her husband. He warns wives to avoid manipulating their husbands either by complaints or by wiles. Rather, they should put their efforts on being gracious and understanding.
Peter’s use of the word “incorruptible” to describe the wife’s beauty also points toward the eschatological nature of Christian conduct: The Christian must not primarily concerned with the current state of affairs. Peter has stipulated that trial and heartache should not surprise us in this life. Therefore, our hope must be set upon Christ and his return.
Plutarch has a very different concern: How can a husband manipulate his wife’s behavior. He offers “good advice”. If you simply run roughshod over your wife, she won’t take it well. But if you use reason, you can convince here to “behave”.
3 Likewise, wives, be subject to your own husbands, so that even if some do not obey the word, they may be won without a word by the conduct of their wives, 2 when they see your respectful and pure conduct. 3 Do not let your adorning be external—the braiding of hair and the putting on of gold jewelry, or the clothing you wear— 4 but let your adorning be the hidden person of the heart with the imperishable beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which in God’s sight is very precious. 5 For this is how the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves, by submitting to their own husbands, 6 as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord. And you are her children, if you do good and do not fear anything that is frightening. 1 Peter 3:1–6 (ESV)
Greek Text and Notes:
ὁ ἥλιος τὸν βορέαν ἐνίκησεν. ὁ γὰρ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ μὲν ἀνέμου βιαζομένου τὸ ἱμάτιον ἀφελέσθαι καὶ λαμπρὸν καταπνέοντος μᾶλλον ἔσφιγγε καὶ συνεῖχε τὴν περιβολὴν τοῦ δʼ ἡλίου μετὰ τὸ πνεῦμα θερμοῦ γενομένου θαλπόμενος εἶτα καυματιζόμενος καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα τῷ ἱματίῳ προσαπεδύσατο. τοῦτο ‘o ποιοῦσιν αἱ πλεῖσται γυναῖκες· ἀφαιρουμένοις τοῖς ἀνδράσι βίᾳ τὴν τρυφὴν καὶ τὴν πολυτέλειαν διαμάχονται καὶ χαλεπαίνουσιν· ἂν πείθωνται μετὰ λόγου, πράως ἀποτίθενται καὶ μετριάζουσιν.
ὁ ἥλιος τὸν βορέαν ἐνίκησεν
The sun the northwind conquered.
Goodwin gets at the plainness and quality of the sentence by adding the phrase, “It is a common proverb”. Plutarch does not say this is a proverb; however, the sentence has the force of a proverb.
ἐνίκησεν: Aorist, nikein: it is just a fact, the sun won.
ὁ γὰρ ἄνθρωπος
For the man
Postpositive gar (for). Nominative. Plutarch begins a father involved sentence by clearly stating the subject.
τοῦ μὲν ἀνέμου βιαζομένου
who is being tormented by the wind.
A forward pointing contrast is being set up by the “men”. The pronoun “who” is not expressly stated but is necessary to start the clause due to the contrast.
Biazo is strong verb. Goodwin’s translation “ruffles”, whatever it sounded like to his ears is altogether too trite. “Ruffles” sounds like something involving a baby. Biazo has the sense of violence.
The genitive anemou here indicates agency: The man is being troubled “of the wind” (English, by the agency of the wind).
τὸ ἱμάτιον ἀφελέσθαι καὶ λαμπρὸν καταπνέοντος
the clothes to put off and sharply blowing against
τὸ ἱμάτιον: Article is used to mark possession (rather than a genitive pronoun).
ἀφελέσθαι: an infinitive is used to mark the wind’s purpose.
Lampros could be either a lamp: The wind blew against the lamp. Or it could be an adjective describing the wind blowing. Both Goodwin and Babbit take it as an adjective, which is attested in the LSJ for use with “wind”:
5. metaph., of vigorous action, λ. ἄνεμος a keen wind, Hdt.2.96, cf.A.Ag.1180; λ. ἤδη καὶ μέγας καθιείς swooping down like a fresh and mighty breeze, Ar.Eq.430, cf. 760; λαμπρὸς φανήσεται he will come furiously forth, E.Heracl.280; λ. μάχη a keenly contested battle, Plb.10.12.5; -“ότερος κίνδυνος” Id.1.45.9. Adv. -ρῶς, ἐπικείμενοι vigorously, Th.7.71; utterly, λ. ἡττῆσθαι, λ. περιεστοιχίσθαι, Hld.4.4, 9.1.
Καταπνέοντος: the participle is complementary. The purpose of the wind was to blow off the cloak and it also blew against the lamp.
μᾶλλον ἔσφιγγε καὶ συνεῖχε τὴν περιβολὴν
rather he pulled tight and closed the coat.
AP12.208 (Strat.): aor. “ἔσφιγξα” Alex.31, AP10.75 (Pall.), etc.:—Med., aor. “ἐσφιγξάμην” Hermesian.7.81, Nonn.D.15.247, al.:—Pass., aor. “ἐσφίγχθην” AP6.331 (Gaet.), (ἀπ-) Hp.Mochl.35: pf. “ἔσφιγμαι” D.H.7.72, Luc.Musc. Enc.3; inf. “ἐσφίγχθαι” Demetr.Eloc.244, Philostr.VA2.13: plpf. “συνέσφικτο” Procop.Gaz. p.168B.:—bind tight, bind fast:
I. of the person or thing bound, “ἄρασσε μᾶλλον, σφίγγε” A.Pr.58; “σφίγγετ᾽, ἀμαλλοδέται, τὰ δράγματα” Theoc.10.44; κεκρύφαλοι ς. τεὴν τρίχα; AP5.259 (Paul. Sil.); “κρημνᾷ ἑαυτὴν σφίγξασα ἐκ τοῦ τραχήλου” Luc. Asin.24; “ς. πύλας” shut close, AP5.293.5 (Agath.); τόκους clutch, ib. 11.289 (Pall.); ς. τὴν φράσιν straiten, abridge, Plu.2.1011e, cf. Demetr.Eloc.244; πολλῷ χρόνῳ τὸν λόγον σφίγξαντες having severely restrained their utterance, Plu.2.6e:—Pass., “ἐσφίγγετο πέπλος ζωστῆρι” Theoc.7.17; “ς. ὑπὸ τοῦ βρόχου” D.S.12.17; “σφιγχθεὶς χέρας” APl.4.198 (Maec.); “ς. δράκοντι” AP6.331 (Gaet.); “οὐ κατὰ τοὺς σφῆκας πάνυ ἐσφιγμένοι” Luc.Musc.Enc.3:—also Med. (in act. sense), Hermesian.7.81, Nonn.D.13.11, al.
2. of the thing used in binding, στραγγαλίδας ἐσφίγγετε you tied knots fast, i.e. raised all sorts of difficulties, Pherecr.21; “ς. τὴν ἀγκύλην τῆς ἐμβάδος” Alex.31; “σφίγξω σοῖς περὶ ποσσὶ πέδην” AP5.178 (Mel.); σφίγγουσα τὰ πρὸς τοῖς γόνασι (sc. σπάργανα) Sor.1.84; “νεβρίδα στέρνοισι” Nonn.D.1.36; “πέπλα . . ἑῷ καρήνῳ” Musae.252; “σφιγχθεὶς στέφανος” AP12.135 (Asclep.).
II. bind or hold together, “αἰθὴρ ς. περὶ κύκλον ἅπαντα” Emp.38.4; “ς. πάντα” Pl.Ti.58a; “ὁ ὠκεανὸς ς. τὴν οἰκουμένην” Arist.Mu.393b9, cf. Melinno ap.Stob.3.7.12, AP5.293.20 (Agath.).
2. tie up in a bundle, “ἀργύριον” LXX 4 Ki.12.10.
3. tighten up, τὴν ἐκ τῆς μαλακῆς τρίψεως ἀραιότητα ς. Gal.6.91; of astringents, ib.477; σύες . . τοῖς ἄρρεσιν ἐμφερῶς ἐσφιγμέναι sows with firm flesh like boars, Sor.1.30; “ὑπὸ τῆς ἐμφύτου θερμασίας ἀναχαλᾶται τῶν ἐσφιγμένων ἕκαστον” Id.2.10.
The coat: the article (again) used of possession.
τοῦ δʼ ἡλίου μετὰ τὸ πνεῦμα θερμοῦ γενομένου θαλπόμενος
But the son after the wind
θαλπόμενος εἶτα καυματιζόμενος
heating then scorching
A.“-ψω” Orph.Fr.258, Alciphr.2.4: fut. Med. in pass. sense “θάλψομαι” Id.3.42:—heat, soften by heat, Od.21.179, al.:—Pass., “ἐτήκετο κασσίτερος ὣς . . θαλφθείς” Hes.Th.864, cf. S.Tr.697: metaph., to be softened, deceived, “αἴ κε μὴ θαλφθῇ λόγοις” Ar.Eq.210.
II. heat, warm, without any notion of softening, καῦμ᾽ ἔθαλπε (sc. ἡμᾶς) S. Ant.417; θερμὴ ἡμᾶς ἀκτὶς θ. Ar.Av.1092; keep warm, “χλανιδίων ἐρειπίοις θάλπουσα καὶ ψύχουσα” Trag.Adesp.7: prov., θ. τὸν δίφρον, of an idle life, Herod.1.37; “θ. τὰς κοχώνας” Id.7.48; τὴν βαίτην θάλπουσαν εὖ ib.129:—Pass., Hp.Aff.4; θάλπεσθαι τοῦ θέρους to be warm in summer, X.Cyr.5.1.11; “τῷ πυρὶ θάλψομαι” Alciphr.3.42: metaph., ἔτι ἁλίῳ θάλπεσθαι to be alive, Pi.N.4.14.
2. warm at the fire, dry, “θάλπεται ῥάκη” S.Ph.38, cf. E.Hel.183 (lyr.).
3. hatch, “ᾠά” Gp.14.1.4: so abs., sit, ib.3; θ. ἐπὶ τῶν νοσσῶν, ἐπὶ τῶν ᾠῶν, LXXDe. 22.6.
III. metaph., of passion, heat, inflame, “ἣ Διὸς θάλπει κέαρ ἔρωτι” A.Pr.590, cf. S.Fr.474 (Pass.); “ἔθαλψεν ἄτης σπασμός” Id.Tr. 1082:—Pass., “ἱμέρου βέλει τεθάλφθαι πρός τινος” A.Pr.650; θάλπῃ (2sg.) “ἀνηκέστῳ πυρί” S.El.888; “εἴ σευ θάλπεταί τι τῶν ἔνδον” Herod. 2.81.
2. comfort, “ὕπνος . . θάλπει κέαρ” B.Fr.3.11, cf. Fr.16.2, Com.Adesp.5.16D.; cherish, foster, “ἄλλον θάλπε φίλον” Theoc.14.38; “ὡς ἐὰν τροφὸς θάλπῃ τὰ ἑαυτῆς τέκνα” 1 Ep.Thess.2.7; “τὴν ἑαυτοῦ σάρκα” Ep.Eph.5.29; “τὸ ἀσθενοῦν” Alciphr.2.4; “θ. καὶ τρέφειν” PMasp.6B132 (vi A.D.); τὴν πόλιν θ. tend it with fostering care, OGI194.5 (Egypt, i B.C.).
3. ἐμὲ οὐδὲν θ. ἡ δόξα I care nothing for glory, Alciphr.2.2; “ἐμὲ οὐδὲν θ. κέρδος” Aristaenet.1.24.
IV. intr., to be full of heat, vigorous, Arist.Pr.879a33; θάλψαι τρεῖς ποίας to live three summers, AP7.731 (Leon.).
A.burn, scorch up, Apoc.16.8:—Pass., to be burnt up, Ev.Matt.13.6; become heated, suffer from heat, Plu.2.100b, 691f, Arr.Epict.1.6.26, Sor.1.108, M.Ant.7.64.
καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα τῷ ἱματίῳ προσαπεδύσατο
and the coat and the shirt he took off.
τοῦτο ‘o ποιοῦσιν αἱ πλεῖσται γυναῖκες
This is what most women do.
ἀφαιρουμένοις τοῖς ἀνδράσι βίᾳ
When taking away by their husbands by force
When their husbands take away by force
Bia: Dative of manner.
τὴν τρυφὴν καὶ τὴν πολυτέλειαν
The luxury and the extravagance
The objects taken by the husband; hence the accusative case. The article is again used to indicate possession: their luxury
διαμάχονται καὶ χαλεπαίνουσιν
they battle and become bitter.
ἂν πείθωνται μετὰ λόγου
Yet, if they are persuaded by word
An + subjunctive: A third class (or a modified 5th class) conditional: ean + subjunctive. The apodosis contains both a passive & an indicative. Wallace notes, “For the most part this condition is a simple condition. That is, the speaker gives no indication about the likelihood of its fulfillment. His presentation is neutral” (697). He also notes this structure presents a “generic” circumstance. Plutarch doesn’t know whether you’ll take his advice; he’s merely “stating the facts”.
Meta + genitive: association.
πράως ἀποτίθενται καὶ μετριάζουσιν
meekly she will put it away and keep control
 Plutarch, Moralia, ed. Gregorius N. Bernardakis, vol. 1 (Medford, MA: Teubner, 1888), 340–341.