1 Clement, 1 Peter, elders, First Clement, Greek, Greek Text, Hebrews, hebrews 13:17, Hebrews 13:7, Hebrews Authorship, home, leaders, Luke, Luke 22:26, order church, Paul, subjection, Titus, Titus 2, worker at home
1 Clement 1.3:
ἀπροσωπολήμπτως γὰρ πάντα ἐποιεῖτε, καὶ τοῖς νομίμοις *. τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐπορεύεσθε, ὑποτασσόμενοι τοῖς ἡγουμένοις ὑμῶν καὶ τιμὴν τὴν καθήκουσαν ἀπονέμοντες τοῖς παρ ὑμῖν πρεσβυτέροις· νέοις τε μέτρια καὶ σεμνὰ νοεῖν ἐπετρέπετε· γυναιξίν τε ἐν ἀμώμῳ καὶ σεμνῇ καὶ ἁγνῇ συνειδήσει πάντα ἐπιτελεῖν παρηγγέλλετε, στεργούσας καθηκόντως τοὺς ἄνδρας ἑαυτῶν· ἔν τε τῷ κανόνι τῆς ὑποταγῆς ὑπαρχούσας τὰ κατὰ τὸν οἰκον σεμνῶς οἰκουργεῖν ἐδιδάσκετε, πάνυ σωφρονούσας.
For you have been doing all things without partiality, according to what God commands; subjecting yourselves to your elders, showing honor to the elders appointed over you; instructing the young men to think what is fitting and reverent; you charged the women to fulfill all things with a blameless, reverent, pure conscience, showing their own husbands the love which is fitting: you taught them to work in their home according to rule of obedience with reverence and all sobriety.
“You have been doing”: imperfect, to do. The tense refers to an act which went on the past. The relationship to the present is unclear as of this point in the letter. Something has plainly happened with which the writer contrasts the past – when this always took place. The force seems to be that such action was common in the past, an iterative imperfect (Wallace, 546).
“Leaders” this particular word is used in the NT only at Luke 22:26 Hebrews 13:7 & 17: “Futhermore, hegoumenoi is used in the sense of church leaders only by Luke and Hebrews” (Allen, Lukan Authorship of Hebrews, 25). This is another point of contact between 1 Clement and Hebrews. If Allen is correct, then the contact with not merely with Hebrews but even perhaps with Luke.
“Elders”: while the words is merely old men, in this context the theological term seems appropriate in that it comes in close proximity to “leaders” which Hebrews uses as a term for a church leader.
“Young men”: this shows connection to 1 Peter. The quick movement from church order, church leaders and young men in the church takes place in 1 Peter 5:1-5.
There may be a reference here to 1 Timothy 3 and the instructions for church leaders. The word “reverence” appears in that passage. The closest connection would be the combination of women and “reverence” in 1Timothy 3:11.
A closer connection would be Titus 2:2-6:
Older men/elders are told to be “reverent” (“semnos”). The parallel between Titus 2:4-5 contains multiple parallel ideas: (1) and “worker at home”, the strongest connection between the passages (seeing that it is the rarest word; (2) sobriety/sound thinking (this is a key word in 1 Peter, also); (3) purity; (4) reverence; (5) training/teaching [however the words are different];); (6) love of husband (different word).
“Rule of obedience” this phrase has a Pauline flavor: the word for rule is used only by Paul in the NT. Obedience appears in 1 Tim. 2:11 & 3:4.
This sentence sets up the problem discussed in the remainder of the letter, to wit, the lack of subjection within the church.