First, whosoever will not use such ordinary means as God hath appointed, tempts God: if he use extraordinary, (as here the Devil would have Christ do) when nobody went about to thrust him down, willfully to have cast himself down, were great madness: or when a man hath a faire pair of stairs to go down by to call for a Cherub to carry him, or for the wind to fly down, Psalm 18. 10 were great wantonness.
There is an humor in man, that we are all given unto by nature; to be marvelous desirous to try conclusions, in matters that are rare, and unknown unto them contemning things common, and to be fond after strange novelties. It was told them as plain as could be, that they should not reserve of the Manna till morning, and they needed not to have reserved it, they had flesh every day: and yet forsooth they would needs keep it, if it were but for an experiment sake, to try whether it would stink or no, Ex. 16. 20. And though they were forbidden to gather on the Sabaoth day, and on the even had enough for two days, and it was told them they should find none; yet they must needs try. When a thing cannot bee had without great difficulty, it is our manner to have a vehement longing after it, as when David was in a hold, and the garrisons of the Philistines were in Bethlehem, then being thirsty, no water would serve his turn, but that in Bethlehem, 2. Sam. 23. 15. But when three mighty men, had broken into the host of the Philistines, & had brought him of it, he cared not for it.
What does it mean to “tempt God?” Andrews takes it as presumptuous misuse of what God has provided. God has given us “ordinary means” to live in this world. While God is capable of miracles, we are not to presume God will provide such a miracle. To jump from a building and to expect God to save us is to presume upon God’s goodness. You will also hit the ground.
We would agree that the person who jumped from the tower was a madman. But are there places in which we do presume upon God’s goodness? Do we do something foolish and say, “I did this for God, so God will bless me?” I have seen very heated conversations on the question as to whether a particular decision is a matter of trusting God or presuming upon God. While leaping from a building may an easy call, there are other matters which are less clear.
For instance, a man with a perfectly stable job quits his job and moves him family to a new city to attend seminary to be a pastor. Is this a pious act of faith, or a presumptuous tempting of God (God, I gave up my job, so you have to take care of my family)?
We are susceptible to this ploy not merely through false piety. It can also come about because we want what we do not have. It is easy to seek to justify our vain curiosity on the supposedly pious ground.
The test which Andrews lays out for us is this: Has God provided an “ordinary means” to accomplish this end? It is not presumption to take the stairs down to the ground floor. Perhaps if we asked ourselves pointedly, “What is the ordinary means to accomplish this end” we would be spared much sorrow.
 By “ordinary means”, Andrews means the normal way in which something is done. When just proceed in the world without asking to
 We are always curious about those things which have not experienced. We tend to ignore those things of which we have had experience. This was an issue which would have been a matter of consideration at this time. There was a great deal of exploration. Modern science was beginning to test everything. The question of curiosity a live issue at the time of this sermon. Consider the following notice by Francis Bacon in a letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley dated 1592:
I confess that I have as vast contemplative ends, as I have moderate civil ends: for I have taken all knowledge to be my province; and if I could purge it of two sorts of rovers, whereof the one with frivolous disputations, confutations, and verbosities, the other with blind experiments and auricular traditions and impostures, hath committed so many spoils, I hope I should bring in industrious observations, grounded conclusions, and profitable inventions and discoveries; the best state of that province. This, whether it be curiosity, or vain glory, or nature, or (if one take it favourably) philanthropia, is so fixed in my mind as it cannot be removed. And I do easily see, that place of any reasonable countenance doth bring commandment of more wits than of a man’s own; which is the thing I greatly affect. (Bacon 1857–74, VIII, 109)
 Truly, this would be something they would “have to” do.
 Exodus 16:18–20 (ESV) 18 But when they measured it with an omer, whoever gathered much had nothing left over, and whoever gathered little had no lack. Each of them gathered as much as he could eat. 19 And Moses said to them, “Let no one leave any of it over till the morning.” 20 But they did not listen to Moses. Some left part of it till the morning, and it bred worms and stank. And Moses was angry with them.
 When David could not get into Bethlehem, he said, I wish I could drink from the well in Bethlehem. Andrews’ point is we human have a tendency to want what we cannot have and look into what is not our business. It was this tendency for a sort of discontentment which the Devil is seeking to exploit by means of this temptation.
Matth. 4. Ver. 7. Iesus said vnto him, It is written againe: Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
Considering that Saint James says chap. 4. 5. The Scripture speaketh nothing in vaine: & that as our Savior Christ saith John 10. 35, No scripture can be disappointed; it may seem strange that the Devil coming armed with The sword of the spirite, (for so is the word of God termed, Ephes. 6. 17.) Christ gives not place, but opposes himself to answer. We see that a message coming in the name of the Lord, this very name abashed Nehemiah(Neh. 6. 10) at the first hearing, till he perceived it was contrary to the law of God, and so came not from him: which here we see to be the cause, why Christ does not yield by and by, upon the hearing of the Word, but sets himself to make answer: forsomuch as the word is not of force, Quia dicitur onely, but Quia creditur, as Augustine notes. If there bee not the mixture of faith with it, (whereof Paulspeakes, Heb. 4. 2.) it is nothing worth. And therefore, the bad spirit was nothing abashed or daunted, at the hearing of the bare names of Jesus and Paul, Act. 19. 15, but answered, I know them, but who are ye? They did not believe, and therefore could do them no good, but were wounded themselves: glorious names would not serve the turn. So was it here used without faith.
When the Scripture is here urged against one, a man would think it were not to be answered by citing another place of Scripture; but by some tradition of the Elders, Mark 7. 1 or some gloss, or other shift; but we see our Savior answers here no other way but by Scripture.
Because the wolf comes sometimes disguised in a sheep’s skin, it is no reason that therefore the very sheep should lay away their fleeces: so here, because the Devil uses the Word, as the slaying letter, 2. Cor. 3. 6 or as the sword to kill men with; it is no reason why Christ may not therefore use it in his own defense.
Why then (will some say) one of these two inconveniences will follow:  that hereby we shall think the Scripture is of the Devil’s side, as well as of Christ’s side, & so divided; as in like sort they make a division of Christ, when one holds with Paul, another of Apollos, 1 Cor. 1. 13. No, it is not so, Christ alleges not this Scripture in that sort, as one nail to drive out another: but by way of harmony and exposition, that the one may make plain the meaning of the other.
For albeit the Devil shows himself to be the Devil, in citing that text so, as might best serve for his purpose: in that, whereas the Psalm whereout he taketh it, has it thus, That he might keepe him in all his wayes; which words he leaves out. For if he had cited that, he could not thereby have enforced any casting down: for the angels have no charge over a man, but in his ways; & from the top of the pinnacle there was no way, but down the stairs on his feet. He was not (relying on the angels) to cast himself down with his head forward. But the Devil has a wrest, to make the string sound high or low, as he list; or if that will not serve, he hath a rack to stretch them out, as some did Saint Paul’s Epistles, 2. Pet. 3. 16. He can set them on the tenters, to prove, that down the stairs, or over the battlements, all is one, the angels shall safeguard him.
Though this (I say) be the Devil’s corruption, which the late writers have well spied: yet Christ (we see) is not willing to take advantage of that, but uses a wiser course; for so are we to think, that he went the best way to work, that is, the conference of Scripture with Scripture, which Christ here practices, and commends unto us.
In every art, all propositions are not of a like certainty, but some be grounds and principles so certain, as that no exception is to be taken against them. From them are others derived, by a consequence called deduction, not so certain as the other: from these again to others, to the twentieth-hand. So is it in Divinity [theology]. Christ here reduces the Devil’s argument & place, to a place most plain to be confessed. For the Jews valuing of the means, had to consider, that God fed them with Manna, which they knew not, to teach them, that Man liueth not by bread onely, Deut. 8.3 condemning the same: and in Deut. 6. 16 bad [said, exhorted] them they should not tempt their Lord their God, as in Massah, when they cried for bread.
The Lord curses him, that makes flesh his arm, and withdraws his heart from God, Jer. 17. 5. They sacrificed unto their yarn, because their portion was plentiful, Hab 1. 16. Job condemns the making gold our hope, or the wedge of gold our confidence, chap. 31. ver. 24. As then we must not deify the means, attributing all sufficiency to them: so, we may not nullify them, & think too basely of them, but use them, that we tempt not God, according to his Word.
Out of these two grounds, may every question be resolved: for every proposition must be proved out of the ground. So that, as we may not think the arm of God to be so shortened, that he cannot help without means: so are we not to think basely of God, for ordaining means.
Secondly, we heard, that the Devil’s allegation was taken out of the Psalm, and one of the most comfortable places of all the Psalms. Christ by not standing in disputation about the words and meaning of the text, commends to us the safest and wisest way to make answer in such like cases. Our Savior would warn us, that the Psalm 91 is not fit matter for us to study on, when we are on the top of the pinnacle: he therefore chooses a place of a contrary kind, to counterpoise himself, standing in that tickle place.
The Law (we know) is a great cooler to presumption. If one tamper much with the Psalms, being in the case of confidence, he may make the fire too big. Faith is the fire which Christ came to put on the earth, and it is seated between two extremes, Distrust, and Presumption. Distrust is as water to it, which if it be powered on in abundance, it will make it to be smoking flax, or utterly quench it: Presumption (on the other side) is a gunpowder to it, which being thrown into it, it will blow it up, and make it fly all about the house. Christ was to take heed of over-heating his faith. Luther [writing] upon the Galatians saith, the 91[st] Psalm is no meet study for many men’s humors in our days: they had more need of a corrosive, to eat out the soar of the root and bottom.
In this section, Andrews provides instruction on how to understand and make use of Scripture. The first proposition is that Scripture is not a magic recitation. He gives the example of the exorcists who heard of Paul exorcising demons in the name of Jesus. These men, who did not have faith in Jesus, who did not belong to him, thought that merely using the name would give them power. It was not so. It is not the saying of the words, but the believing reception of the words which is efficacious. An unbeliever handling the Scripture will not profit them.
The Devil is the ultimate unbeliever and hence his quotation of the Scripture was not to his profit.
Second proposition: One would have supposed that Jesus would have contested the Devil’s presentation by arguing over the meaning of the passage (indeed, the Devil takes the passage out of context, as Andrews will argue later in this section). But Jesus rebuts the Devil by showing that Scripture is to be read as a harmonious whole. Yes, the Scripture here in this way, but it also provides further clarity on our relationship to God in another place. We must consider both passages to understand either.
All our understanding of the Scripture must be as harmonious. If we come to an understanding which results in conflicts where either one or the other passage must be right (where one nail drives out another), our understanding is incorrect.
The Devil misuses the Scripture in a way to cause a conflict with other passages, and a conflict even with the immediate Psalm.
This leads Andrews to make a comment on the question of God’s use of ordinary means to perform ends. The common way to come down from a pinnacle is by the stairs, not to leap and let the angels catch you before you hit the ground. God is not bound by the means. He most commonly provides us by breach by cause the grain to grow from the ground. But God is not bound by means. He can provide bread in the wilderness without apparent means.
He provides a final observation on the use of the Scripture. There are passages which give us much comfort and hope such as the 91st Psalm. Taken by itself, without reference to the rest of Scripture, could easily lead one to presumption:
Psalm 91:1–13 (ESV)
91 He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High
will abide in the shadow of the Almighty.
2 I will say to the Lord, “My refuge and my fortress,
my God, in whom I trust.”
3 For he will deliver you from the snare of the fowler
and from the deadly pestilence.
4 He will cover you with his pinions,
and under his wings you will find refuge;
his faithfulness is a shield and buckler.
5 You will not fear the terror of the night,
nor the arrow that flies by day,
6 nor the pestilence that stalks in darkness,
nor the destruction that wastes at noonday.
7 A thousand may fall at your side,
ten thousand at your right hand,
but it will not come near you.
8 You will only look with your eyes
and see the recompense of the wicked.
9 Because you have made the Lord your dwelling place—
the Most High, who is my refuge—
10 no evil shall be allowed to befall you,
no plague come near your tent.
11 For he will command his angels concerning you
to guard you in all your ways.
12 On their hands they will bear you up,
lest you strike your foot against a stone.
13 You will tread on the lion and the adder;
the young lion and the serpent you will trample underfoot.
This could lead one to think that no danger will ever befall me. But we must not read these promises as absolute and disregard the remainder of the Scripture. Consider the life of Christ, himself. He was arrested, falsely accused, beaten, then crucified. He himself promised we would have trouble in this world. We have the book of Job and Ecclesiastes as well as the Psalms and Proverbs.
Our reading of the Scripture must be of the whole, not isolated parts. Read alone without reference to whole could lead to despair or presumption; the twin dangers which the Devil has sought to exploit in the first two temptations.
Christ’s defense to the Devil’s misuse of Scripture was more Scripture.
What this means for our application is that our knowledge of the Scripture must be more complete. I do not recall the precise reference, but I recall reading in Chrysostom an admonition to the congregation that they go out unarmed, because they do not know the Scripture.
 Matthew 4:7 (ESV) “Jesus said to him, “Again it is written, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’ ””
 James 4:5 (ESV) “Or do you suppose it is to no purpose that the Scripture says, ‘He yearns jealously over the spirit that he has made to dwell in us’?” Andrews takes the proposition used in the particular in James, do you suppose this one particular statement is of “no purpose,”, i.e., vain and applies it generally. This is an appropriate use of the passage, because the specific application presumes the general. If the Scripture could speak in vain, then the particular instance could be vain. However if the Scripture always speaks to purpose, then all particular instances speak to purpose.
 John 10:35 (ESV) “If he called them gods to whom the word of God came—and Scripture cannot be broken—” I am not sure where Andrews got the word “disappointed.” It is possible conceptually to obtain “fail” as an idea related to the Greek verb used in this place: the verb means to untie, to loose, to set free, to destroy. So one could see a metaphorical use which would have the connotation of “disappoint.” But the word “broken” was used going back to Tyndale, and was used in the Geneva.
 The argument runs thus, The Scripture cannot fail in its effect. The Devil quotes from the Bible and says to Jesus, “Do you really believe this promise that you will be hurt if you fall?” The Devil seems to have caught Jesus in a dilemma.
 The passage reads: “9 For they all wanted to frighten us, thinking, “Their hands will drop from the work, and it will not be done.” But now, O God, strengthen my hands. 10 Now when I went into the house of Shemaiah the son of Delaiah, son of Mehetabel, who was confined to his home, he said, “Let us meet together in the house of God, within the temple. Let us close the doors of the temple, for they are coming to kill you. They are coming to kill you by night.” 11 But I said, “Should such a man as I run away? And what man such as I could go into the temple and live? I will not go in.” 12 And I understood and saw that God had not sent him, but he had pronounced the prophecy against me because Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him.” When Nehemiah first heard considered the words might come from God he was concerned. But upon understanding that this was not God’s word to him, he put it aside. By analogy: The Devil’s use of Scripture gives the appearance of being a word from God, but it was a misuse of the text.
 Latin, What is believed. The source is quoted by Calvin in the Institutes: “At longe aliter de Verbo sacramentali docet Augustinus (hom. in Ioann. 13.): ‘Accedat, inquit, verbum ad ele mentum, et fiet sacramentum. Unde enim ista tanta virtus aquae ut corpus tangat, et cor abluat, nisi faciente verbo? non quia dicitur, sed quia creditur. Nam et in ipso verbo aliud est sonus transiens, aliud virtus manens. Hoc est verbum fidei quod praedicamus, inquit Apostolus (Rom. 10:8.). Unde in Actis Apostolorum, Fide mundans corda eorum (Act. 15:9.). Et Petrus Apostolus, Sic et nos Baptisma salvos facit, non depositio sordium carnis, sed conscientiae bonae interrogalio (1 Petr. 3:21.). Hoc est verbum fidei quod praedicamus: quo sine dubio, ut mundare possit, consecratur et Baptismus.’” John Calvin, Institutio Christianae Religionis, vol. 2 (Berolini: Gustavum Eichler, 1834), 352. “Far different is the teaching of Augustine concerning the sacramental word: ‘Let the word be added to the element and it will become a sacrament. For whence comes this great power of water, that in touching the body it should cleanse the heart, unless the word makes it? Not because it is said, but because it is believed. In the word itself the fleeting sound is one thing; the power remaining, another. ‘This is the word of faith which we proclaim,’ says the apostle [Rom. 10:8]. Accordingly, in The Acts of the Apostles: ‘Cleansing their hearts by faith’ [Acts 15:9]. And the apostle Peter: ‘Thus baptism … saves us, not as a removal of filth from the flesh, but as an appeal … for a good conscience …’ [1 Peter 3:21 p.]. ‘This is the word of faith which we proclaim’ [Rom. 10:8], by which doubtless baptism, that it may be able to cleanse, is also consecrated.’” John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion & 2, ed. John T. McNeill, trans. Ford Lewis Battles, vol. 1, The Library of Christian Classics (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011), 1279.
 Acts 19:13–16 (ESV) “13 Then some of the itinerant Jewish exorcists undertook to invoke the name of the Lord Jesus over those who had evil spirits, saying, “I adjure you by the Jesus whom Paul proclaims.” 14 Seven sons of a Jewish high priest named Sceva were doing this. 15 But the evil spirit answered them, “Jesus I know, and Paul I recognize, but who are you?” 16 And the man in whom was the evil spirit leaped on them, mastered all of them and overpowered them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded.”
 The name of Jesus was not a magic word, which merely saying commands evil spirits.
 The words of Scripture are not magic. They are used by the Spirit when received by faith.
 One would think that the response to be presented with a proposition from Scripture and being told, do you believe this? Would respond with, “You have misinterpreted the passage. It does not mean what you say it means.” The “tradition of elders” means an authoritative interpretation of the most respected teachers. A “gloss” means an explanatory paraphrase. A “shift” would be something else which would “shift” the basis of the proposition.
 The metaphor is based upon Jesus’ words in Matthew 7:15 that false prophets will come “in sheep’s clothing”, i.e., disguised as a sheep and thus a true follower. Andrews means, that just because a false prophet comes in sheep’s clothing is no reason to give up the flock. More particularly, just because you are defined by the Scripture, it does not mean that you should give up the Scripture when it is misused by someone. A present application of this proposition would be found in those who some proposition out of the Bible which appears to either contradict the rest of Scripture or which makes the Bible sound unfair or unjust. In response, rather than permitting the Bible to defend itself, we run to some other source of authority.
 2 Corinthians 3:4–6 (ESV) “Such is the confidence that we have through Christ toward God. 5 Not that we are sufficient in ourselves to claim anything as coming from us, but our sufficiency is from God, 6 who has made us sufficient to be ministers of a new covenant, not of the letter but of the Spirit. For the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.”
 The Devil’s misuses the Scripture is no reason for Christ to abandon the Scripture.
 The Corinthian church had broken up into factions which each claimed they were followers of a particular teacher, such as Paul, or Apollos, or Peter. The letter addresses this ungodly fracturing.
 An “allegation” here does not mean an accusation in a legal document which has yet to be proved, but rather an assertion.
 Andrews here lays down a rule of interpretation. Scripture is not to be read in such a way that one text trumps another: like hammering a nail on a nail drives the bottom nail out of the wood. This can happen when one reads the Bible as if it were a series of separate books which have been cobbled together, the books with different ends and different authors. Rather, the Scripture is to be read as a consistent harmony. We cannot take Scripture out of context, and in the end, the context is the entire Bible. This principle was set forth in the Westminster Confession as follows: “VII. All things in scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all;p yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed, for salvation, are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.” Westminster Assembly, The Westminster Confession of Faith: Edinburgh Edition (Philadelphia: William S. Young, 1851), 19.
to guard you in all your ways. The Geneva has “to kepe thee in all thy ways” as does the Matthew’s translation. The difference between Andrews and the Geneva or Matthews is “to keep him” and “to keep you.”
 This is an interesting reading of the verse: the verse was not a promise that the angels would protect no matter the psalmist did (here referring to the Messiah). But the protection was afforded for him being where he was called to be.
 He compares the Devil’s speech to one tuning a stringed instrument: The Devil can twist the string however much he desires so that it will play the note he wishes to obtain, that is, he can make words sound however he wishes them to sound.
 2 Peter 3:14–16 (ESV) “14 Therefore, beloved, since you are waiting for these, be diligent to be found by him without spot or blemish, and at peace. 15 And count the patience of our Lord as salvation, just as our beloved brother Paul also wrote to you according to the wisdom given him, 16 as he does in all his letters when he speaks in them of these matters. There are some things in them that are hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures.” The Devil can even twist Scripture to a bad end.
 Rather than demonstrate that the Devil has misapplied the Scripture in place here, Christ has chosen a different form of response by referencing other Scripture to show that Scripture as a whole must be read in harmony.
 Any area of knowledge consists of basic principles or axioms which are taken as certain. From those basic principles other propositions may be determined by means of deduction.
 Deuteronomy 8:1–3 (ESV) “The whole commandment that I command you today you shall be careful to do, that you may live and multiply, and go in and possess the land that the Lord swore to give to your fathers. 2 And you shall remember the whole way that the Lord your God has led you these forty years in the wilderness, that he might humble you, testing you to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep his commandments or not. 3 And he humbled you and let you hunger and fed you with manna, which you did not know, nor did your fathers know, that he might make you know that man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by every word that comes from the mouth of the Lord.”
 Deuteronomy 6:16 (ESV) “You shall not put the Lord your God to the test, as you tested him at Massah.” Andrews is underscoring not merely that Jesus is reading the Bible as a harmony, but even the two verses he has quoted so far in response to the first two temptations are part of the same exhortation to the Israelites in the wilderness. First, God tested them so that they would learn they need to live upon God and not merely upon physical objects, like bread. God is the God of bread. Second, they should not “test” God by complaining that God is not meeting their immediate demands.
25 if I have rejoiced because my wealth was abundant
or because my hand had found much,
26 if I have looked at the sun when it shone,
or the moon moving in splendor,
27 and my heart has been secretly enticed,
and my mouth has kissed my hand,
28 this also would be an iniquity to be punished by the judges,
for I would have been false to God above.
 We must not understand the things in the world as having an efficacy in-and-of themselves. Food does not support our life because food has it in itself to support life, but because God has caused food to support our life. This is not to deny the reality or usefulness of food (for instance), but to understand that food is a creation and is subject to the Creator: “God in his ordinary providence maketh use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at his pleasure.” Westminster Assembly, The Westminster Confession of Faith: Edinburgh Edition, Chapter 5.3 (Philadelphia: William S. Young, 1851), 35.
 There must be a proper basis for any conclusion.
 Two points: First, we must not think that God’s power is limited to the use of means. God can work without means. Second, we must not think God is weak because he uses means.
 The Devil chose his text to tempt Jesus by using one of the most comforting passages among all of the Psalms.
 When we are in such a “ticklish” place, dangerous place, Jesus gives the proper way to respond. It is not a time for arguing.
 It would be easy to take certain texts, such as those which speak of God’s love and mercy out of the context of the entire Bible. God is a God mercy, but equally a God of justice. We are given the Psalms for comfort and the Law for direction.
 Luke 12:49 (ESV) “I came to cast fire on the earth, and would that it were already kindled!”
 If we find ourselves beset by distrust of God, it can act to quench faith, like water being poured on a fire.
 Presumption is a misuse of faith. Bringing presumption to faith is like bringing gunpowder to a fire.
 At this time, the greater problem is presuming upon the grace of God, rather than being fearful that God will hold anyone to account.
Now to the Temptation: wherein we are to consider three things. First, the ground the Devil chose for the working of this temptation. Secondly temptation itself; to wit, the Devil’s speech. Thirdly, Christ’s answer to it.
In the place, three things are to be noted: first, the place itself: secondly, the Devil chose it: thirdly, that our Savior followed him thither.
For a new temptation, he [the Devil] makes choice of a new place. Indeed, for a temptation to presumption, the wilderness was not a fit place: first it was not high enough, and then it was not populous enough. It was a melancholy place: when a man is under the cross in affliction, or in some anguish and sorrow for want, death of friends, or otherwise; and generally, for all solitary men: the hungry temptation is fitter, than this of presumption.
Proof of the Point
As long as Noah was in the ark in the midst of the waters, he had in him no presumptuous thought: but sitting under the vine in his vineyard, he was overcome therewith. And just Lot (2. Pet. 2. 8.) in Sodom, had no fit time or place to be presumptuous; but when he dwelt in the mountain in security, then he committed incest with his daughters, being made drunk by them.
David, so long as he was persecuted by Saul, and tossed up & down from post to pillar, had no leisure to be presumptuous: but in the top of his turret, when he was at rest in his palace, 2. Sam. 11. 2. presumption gave him a blow.
So here the wilderness was no fit place, but the pinnacle is a very fit place for one to be presumptuous on. It is as good as a stage to shew himself upon, to see and to be seen.
In the wilderness there was small warrant for one that would be presumptuous: but from the pinnacle he might discern far and near, both the inner court and outward court, and see a whole cloud of witnesses, and have some warrant of example of all estates, high or low, wise or noble.
For what abuse soever be in him, be he never so presumptuous, he shall see some as provide, stout, and high minded as himself: be his hair never so long, or his ruffs never so great, he shall find some as far gone therein as himself.
If we mark the four gradations that it hath, we shall find it to be a very fit place. As first, before he could come to the pinnacle, he must go out of the wilderness into the city: secondly, not any city, but the Holy City [i.e., Jerusalem]: thirdly, into the temple of the city: and fourthly, out of the temple up to the pinnacle.
First, (having got him to leave the wilderness) he brought him into the city, that there he might say unto him: you see such & such grave [well-behaved, dignified] men, how they behave themselves: why should you seek to bee holier than they? This was a good civil temptation: he brought him not to Caesarea or Samaria, but even to Jerusalem, the Holy City: for that addition is given it, Luke 4.9 and Dan. 9. 24. Thirdly, he brought him into the Temple, where even the very ground was holy. Fourthly, not to any other place of it, but to the very top and pinnacle which was over the Sanctum Sanctorum.
Who would not tread hard there? and take upon him being in such a place, where if a man will be carried away with example; he may see Ananias the high Priest, renting his clothes, at the hearing of things that sounded like blasphemy, Mark 14. 63 and yet buying his bishopric for money; who will not then be bold to do the like?
And Herod a Prince, such a one as heard John Baptist preach; yea, and with much delight, to commit adultery, Mark6. 20 who would fear to doo the like? There he may see the Pharisee, under show of great holiness, tithing mint and cumin, and under color of long prayers, devour widow’s houses, bringing in by extortion, and sending out by excess, Matt. 23. 14, 21.
And so in this city [i.e., Jerusalem], one may see some men, both great frequenters of sermons, and yet great usurers; gentlewomen misshapen in their attire. Seeing this, who will not be as bold as they, the place being so holy? And being thus warranted by example, surely, we must needs commend the Devil’s wit [intelligence] for his choice.
First against some fantastical spirits [lying/slanderous people], who say, “Can that be a Holy City, where there be dumb dogs?” There were so in Jerusalem, Is56. 10, where the leaders be blind Matt. 15. 14. They were so where Judas ministered the sacrament, where there is division and debate amongst themselves, Phil. 4. 2. Can this (say they) be the Holy City? And thereupon they forsake the fellowship, Heb. 10. 25 whereas they (notwithstanding the former abuses, and notwithstanding the eleven tribes were apostates) did yet name it the Holy City.
Secondly, on the other side we are to be instructed, that though a man be on the battlements of the Church, yet hath he no sure footing, or cause to be secure; but rather to fear the more: for even there does the Devil stand at his elbow, watching his overthrow. There is no place (we see) privileged from temptations, no desert so solitary, but the Devil will seek it out: no pinnacle so high, but the Devil is a Bishop over it, to visit and overlook it.
To conclude, though in Jerusalem sit the abomination of desolation (whereof Daniel spoke) yet it is the Holy City stils. And though the place be never so holy, yet is that no cause of privilege; but even there may sit the abomination of desolation Both are proved out of Matt. 24. 15.
The second thing that we observed in the circumstance of place, is, that the Devil assumpted Christ: which, to those that are weak (as Gregory also collects) may be offensive, in giving them to think, that the Devil had such power over Christ as to carry him whether he listed. But when they shall consider, that even the limbs of the Devil haled and harrowed him to-and-fro, from Annas to Caiphas, from Caiphas to Pilate, from Pilate to Herod, and from him back again to Pilate: and how spitefully and contemptuously he was used in all these places, and at last carried to execution: what miracle will it be to see him (as Augustin speaks) In monte duci a capite, qui a membris traditur, &c.
These things do indeed (as all other his sufferings) set forth the greatness of the love of GOD towards us. Of God the Father, that would give his only Son; yea, appoint him this work of our salvation, and give the Devil such a power over him, Luke 20. 53. Of God the Son, that he would be content to suffer such indignity, Phil. 2. 7 as to be obedient to the death of the Cross.
The reason of all these his sufferings, as also that he would be baptized of John, a weak and sinful man; was (as himself declares it) to fulfil all righteousness, Matt. 3. 15. So here he was to suffer it, else God’s righteousness would not have been fulfilled, nor the work of our salvation. And as he suffered this Assumption, so afterwards, Luke 9. 51. his second Assumption, was to go to Jerusalem to suffer; and so at the last he came to his third and last Assumption, to be received up into glory, 1. Tim. 3. 16. And by the very same steps and degrees, must we be assumpted. And this is his assumption of suffering, which brought him to glorifying.
The third thing is, that our Savior our followed; whereby we are to mark, not so much his courage, that durst encounter with the Devil in any place wheresoever he list to carry him: and that he was not only the God of the valleys, but a God of the mountains also, contrary to their surmise, 1. King. 20. 23. That (I say) is not so much to be marked, as that our Savior would at all stand upon a pinnacle.
There be some that would make us believe, it is a sin to stand upon a pinnacle: but then if that had been so, Christ would never have stood there. And since Christ stood there, it is no more sin for any man else to stand there, than it is to stand in the wilderness: for it is lawful for us to follow his foot-steps, & to tread wheresoever he hath trod before us; yet such places be not privileged. For as it is true, that many men’s table & wealth is their snare, Psalm. 69. 22. so even the good gifts and graces of God, bee turned to a man’s hurt, as knowledge may serve for a quill to puff him up, and make him swell, 1. Cor. 8. 1. Nay, even that godly sorrow, which is so much to be wished for, has in it matter of temptation, least men be swallowed up with too much heaviness, 2 Cor. 2.7.
The Scriptures themselves (we see) are subject to the abuse of the Devil whereby it should follow, that they are to be refused, if everything be to be refused which brings matter of temptation. But as Augustin saith, Non est laus stetisse in pinaculo, sed stetisse & non cecidisse. In every place to answer the Devil is praise-worthy. Indeed, it is dangerous for one that hath a light and guide brain, for such as are drunk Is. 51.22 (though not with wine) to stand so high.
Job could stand there without falling, for he had a more settled brain, Job 31:27. Such places are for the wisest and sagest men. Saint Paul stood not there, but yet he could haue stood there, for he had the trick or skill of it, as himself confesses, Phil. 4. 12. “I can be abased, and I can abound, &c”
There are two sorts of temptation.
First, Christ was tempted to believe that God would not protect him. This is a temptation of despair: God has left me. These are temptations of the wilderness.
But there is another type of temptation. This second sort of temptation is a temptation to presumption: it is not fit for a solitary place, but for the most public place of all. It is a change to presume upon the grace of God and show oneself to others in this way.
This is a useful taxonomy of temptation: Some temptations work upon need. We need money. We need food. We are lonely. We suffer some privation. We believe God will not rescue us, and so we seek to solve the problem by means of sin. This temptation works upon our fear and insecurity.
But temptation can work in the opposite direction: We are full and are feeling prideful. We wish to extend that pride and receive praise. The Devil has temptations fitted to our pride which cause us to presume upon the grace and goodness of God. We fail to see our dependence upon him, and our need to submit to this will here, also.
The Devil having failed at privation temptations with presumption. For this temptation, the Devil took Jesus to the Holy City and brought him to the highest point.
This then raises a question: How is the Devil taking Jesus anywhere? Andrews makes the question even more pointed: It was not just the Devil, but even the Devil’s “members”, his henchmen who were dragging Jesus around. What then should we think of this? We should conclude that the Son underwent such abuse and humiliation because the Father loves us.
Jesus is brought up (assumpted) first to this pinnacle for temptation. Second, Jesus is assumpted up to Jerusalem to be crucified. Third, Jesus is assumpted up into heaven. He is twice brought up in temptation and trial; then he is brought up in glory.
Another thing to realize here is Jesus is proclaiming the sovereignty of God in all places by going to all places.
He finally deals with the question of avoiding temptation. On one hand, anything can be used to be bring about temptation. We cannot avoid everything. The Devil even uses Scripture as a basis for temptation.
What is the answer? We cannot avoid all temptation. And there is nothing praiseworthy about being tempted. What does not matter is not falling from the pinnacle )where you are being tempted) into sin. As Augustine says, It is not praiseworthy to have stood on a pinnacle. But, [it is praiseworthy] to stand and not fall.
 Andrews here makes an observation concerning the subjective power of a temptation. When we are isolated and our circumstance is precarious, we are less likely to presume upon the grace of God. We feel fearful and are more likely to distrust God in such a circumstance. But when we are in a public place and our “faith” will be lauded, we are more likely to presume upon God’s grace. It is interesting that the degree to which we are willing to trust God is dependent upon our circumstance irrespective of God. Why we would think God would vary in his faithfulness depending upon whether some human being is looking is quite strange.
 Gen. 9:20-21 recounts that after Noah had survived the Flood, he planted a vineyard. Noah made wine and got drunk, which resulted in an unexplained instance of shame.
 In 2 Peter 3:8, Peter refers to Lot as “just” while he lived in Sodom. At the warning of God, Lot and his daughters fled into the mountains when the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed by God. Seeing the destruction, Lot’s daughter concluded all life had been destroyed. Falsely believing themselves to be the two last women on earth, they got their father drunk and then had relations which resulted in pregnancy. Gen. ____
 After David had secured the throne he was found in Jerusalem, alone on his rooftop [a common place to rest in the evening] at “the time of year when kings go out to war.” 2 Sam. 12___. From the roof, David spied a beautiful, married woman bathing. His ensuing adulterous relationship led to great sorrow for himself, his family, the woman’s family, and the kingdom. Rather than being careful, David has become careless of his sanctification.
 The Devil has taken Jesus to a turret of the Temple in Jerusalem: as public a place as could be imagined.
 An ironic use of the phrase “cloud of witnesses” from Hebrews 11__. In Hebrews, the phrase is used as a basis for exhortation to live a life of true faith. Andrews appropriates the phrase for the Devil’s attempt to lead to presumption in Jesus: false faith.
 Luke 4:9 (ESV) “And he took him to Jerusalem and set him on the pinnacle of the temple and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here.”
 Daniel 9:24 (ESV) “Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet, and to anoint a most holy place.”
 Mark 14:61–63 (ESV) “But he remained silent and made no answer. Again the high priest asked him, ‘Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?’ 62 And Jesus said, ‘I am, and you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.’ 63 And the high priest tore his garments and said, “What further witnesses do we need?’”
 “Ananias, the son of Nebedæus, successor or Joseph the son of Camei, or Camydus (‘Ant. Jud.,’ xx. i. 3; v. 2), appears to have been actually high priest at this time. He was a violent, haughty, gluttonous, and rapacious man, and yet looked up to by the Jews (“très considéré,” Renan). He had probably lately returned from Rome, having been confirmed, as it seems, in his office by Claudius, to whom Quadratus, the predecessor of Felix, had sent him as a prisoner, to answer certain charges of sedition against him. He seems to have been high priest for the unusually long period of over ten years—from A.D. 48 to A.D. 59 (see Josephus, ‘Ant. Jud.,’ xx. v. 2; vi. 2, 3; viii. 8). But, on the other hand, Josephus (‘Ant. Jud.,’ xx. viii. 5) speaks of a certain Jonathan being high priest during the government of Felix, and being murdered by the Sicarii at his instigation; which looks as if Ananias’s high priesthood had been interrupted. It would appear, too, from xx. viii, 8, that Ismael the son of Fabi succeeded to Jonathan, not to Ananias, as is usually supposed. But the question is involved in great obscurity.” H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., Acts of the Apostles, vol. 2, The Pulpit Commentary (London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1909), 211.
 “That ver. 14 is an interpolation derived from the parallel in Mk 12:40 or Lk 20:47 is clear (a) from its absence in the earliest and best authorities of the Alexandrian and the Western types of text, and (b) from the fact that the witnesses that include the passage have it in different places, either after ver. 13 (so the Textus Receptus) or before ver. 13.” Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), 50. Matthew 23:14 (AV) “Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.”
 Matthew 23:21 (ESV) “And whoever swears by the temple swears by it and by him who dwells in it.”
 He answers the objection, “How can this be the Holy City? It is filled with hypocrites. And, the Devil feels comfortable being there.”
 Here, “dumb dog” is a just derisive name-calling. The phrase comes from Isaiah 56:10: those who had a duty to protect the city were useless:
Isaiah 56:10 (ESV)
10 His watchmen are blind;
they are all without knowledge;
they are all silent dogs;
they cannot bark,
dreaming, lying down,
loving to slumber.
In place of “silent dogs”, the AV has “dumb dogs.”
 Rather Judas being the one ministered to others, this appears to be a reference to the supper in John 13, where Jesus gave the bread to Judas: John 13:26 (ESV) “Jesus answered, ‘It is he to whom I will give this morsel of bread when I have dipped it.’ So when he had dipped the morsel, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot.”
 Hebrews 10:24–25 (ESV) “And let us consider how to stir up one another to love and good works, 25 not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day drawing near.”
 There is no place so remote nor organization so privileged that the Devil will not come there.
 Matthew 24:15 (ESV) “‘So when you see the abomination of desolation spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand).’”
 The Devil took Jesus to a high place; he raised him up physically.
 Some people, the “weak” may misunderstand this passage and conclude that the Devil has power over Christ to force him to go places where Christ did not wish to go. The verb “to list” means to desire or incline.
 On the analogy of the Church being the “body” of Christ and Christ being the “head”, he speaks of the Devil. The quotation from Augustine means that Jesus was led up the mountain by the “head” (that is, the Devil); and Jesus was delivered/moved/betrayed by the members (Pilate, Herod, et cetera).
 What should we conclude from the fact that the Devil and his minions were permitted to exercise power of Christ? That Jesus Christ lacked strength? No. Andrews says we should look at this willingness to suffer as evidence of the Father’s love toward us. When we look upon the humiliation of Christ, we should see the Father’s love toward us:
1. 1 John 4:8, “God is love.” That the name of God is here taken personally,1 and for the person of the Father, not essentially, is evident from verse 9, where he is distinguished from his only begotten Son whom he sends into the world. Now, saith he, “The Father is love.” that is, not only of an infinitely gracious, tender, compassionate, and loving nature, according as he hath proclaimed himself, Exod. 34:6, 7, but also one that eminently and peculiarly dispenseth himself unto us in free love.” So the apostle sets it forth in the following verses: “This is love.” verse 9;—“This is that which I would have you take notice of in him, that he makes out love unto you, in ‘sending his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him’ ” So also, verse 10, “He loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.” And that this is peculiarly to be eyed in him, the Holy Ghost plainly declares, in making it antecedent to the sending of Christ, and all mercies and benefits whatever by him received. This love, I say, in itself, is antecedent to the purchase of Christ, although the whole fruit thereof be made out alone thereby, Eph. 1:4–6
John Owen, The Works of John Owen, ed. William H. Goold, vol. 2 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, n.d.), 19–20.
 This appears to be a misprint for Luke 22:53. Luke 22:52–53 (ESV) “52 Then Jesus said to the chief priests and officers of the temple and elders, who had come out against him, ‘Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? 53 When I was with you day after day in the temple, you did not lay hands on me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.’”
5 Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, 6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, 7 but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. 8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.
 One of the perplexing points in Christology concerns why Jesus submits to baptism of repentance, seeing that he had no need to repent:
Jesus comes from Galilee, from relative safety, to John at the Jordan to be baptized by him. The one who is free of sin, the one for whom it is John’s whole mission to announce, comes to be baptized by John. We should not be surprised then that John recognizes it is he who should be baptized by Jesus. Yet Jesus, speaking for the first time in Matthew’s gospel, tells John that he must undergo his baptism in order “to fulfill all righteousness.” Jesus, who is the very embodiment of justice, of the law, submits to the law so that we might see justice done. This gives us a foretaste of Jesus, who is life itself, submitting to death so that death may be conquered once and for all.
Stanley Hauerwas, Matthew, Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2006), 48.
 Jesus is brought up on the pinnacle (assumpted) to be tempted. He then “goes up” to Jerusalem to suffer. Finally have been tempted and having suffered, he “goes up” to heaven in glory.
 For the pagan, a god had control of some element or locale. The Syrians thought Israel’s God was likewise so limited: 1 Kings 20:23 (ESV) “And the servants of the king of Syria said to him, ;Their gods are gods of the hills, and so they were stronger than we. But let us fight against them in the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than they.’” But Jesus shows God is God of the wilderness (a valley) and the God of pinnacle (a mountain). He is God everywhere.
 This argument is a bit obscure: it seems to mean that by standing on a pinnacle, Christ was enacting a sinful pride. And that if he put himself in such an obvious and prideful place, and I can go wherever he went, then it is okay for me to do the same. Well, even good things can become a trap for the ungodly. Psalm 69:22 is a prayer of judgment upon those seeking to kill David, “Let their own table before them become a snare.” Good things such as knowledge can lead to pride. 1 Cor. 8:1. And even something as important as sorrow for sin can destroy one in grief. 2 Cor. 2:7.
 The Devil can even use the Bible to bring about temptation. So if we are to avoid everything which could conceivably be used as a basis for temptation, we would have nothing left.
 There is nothing praiseworthy about standing on a pinnacle, but to stand on the pinnacle not fall [is praiseworthy]. It is not praiseworthy that you were someplace where you could be tempted. What is praiseworthy is to be tempted and no succumb to temptation.
Christ’s answer does import two words, and so two mouths, and two breaths, or spirits: and these two be as two twins. He that will be maintained by the one, must seek after the other. The first word is the same decree, whereby the course of nature is established, according to Psalm147. 15. He sendeth foorth his commaundement vpon the earth, and his word runneth verie swiftly: he giueth snow lyke wool, &c.
Secondly, the other is that whereof James cap. 1. vers. 18. speaks: to wit, “the word of truth, wherewith (of his own will) he begat vs.” The one proceeds from the mouth of God’s providence, creating and governing all things, Psalm. 33.6 he but speaking the word, and it was done.
The other proceeds out of the mouth of Gods Prophets, who are (as it were) his mouth, Jer. 15. 19. Thou standest before mee, as if thou wert my mouth.
From the first word, all things have their beginning and being; as when he sent forth his spirit or breath, they were created & had their beginning: So Psalm. 104. 29. he teaches us, that so [as] soon as God hides his face, they are troubled. And if he takes away their breath, they die, and return to dust.
The other spirit, that is, the sanctifying Spirit, ministers unto vs supernatural life, Isaiah 59. 21. Now therefore to set them together, every man is thus to think with himself.
If I get my living contrary to God’s word, that is, by any unlawful means; surely God’s other word will not accompany such gotten goods That is, these two words be twins: if we get not our goods by the one word, we shall want the blessing of the other word and then we were as good eat stones: it will be but gravel in our mouths, or quails. We are then to see the means, according to the second word.
Abraham (we see) went forth to sacrifice, according to Gods appointment, Gen. 22 the Word was his direction: therefore when Isaac asked where was the Sacrifice? He might boldly answer, God would provide one; as we see even at the very pinch he did: whereupon it came to be a proverb, that even In monte, Iehoua prouide bit.
The Israelites went out of Egypt, by the warrant and appointment of God’s Word. How then? First, they had a way made them (where never was any before) through the Red-sea, Ex cap. 14. vers. 21. They had bread downwards out of the clouds, whereas it used to rise upwards out of the earth: Their garments in forty years never waxed old, Deut. the eight chapter, third and fourth verse. They had water whence water used not to come, by striking the rocks, water gushed forth: so that it is true which the Prophet David saith in the ninth verse of the four and thirty Psalm, There is no want to them that feare God.
Though GOD (peradventure [perhaps]) will not use the same means he did for the Israelites; yet the Children of GOD (walking after his will) shall have some way of relief a-ways.
And therefore, Christ would not distrust the providence of GOD: for he knew he was in the work and way of GOD. For we read, that he was led into the Wilderness by the Spirit, and therefore could not lack; as indeed he did not, for the angels came and ministered unto him: as it follows in the eleventh verse of this chapter.
So, either the crows shall minister to our wants, as they did to Elijah; or our enemies, as the Egyptians did to the Israelites: or else the angels themselves, as they did here.
But to grow to a conclusion, Let us seek the Kingdom of God, and all other things shall be ministered unto us. And in all like [similar] temptations, we may learn a good answer out of Dan. cap. 3. vers. 17. That God that we serue is able to releeue & deliuer vs, euen from the burning fire: But if it should not be his will so to doo, yet we will not use unlawful means [sinful actions] or fall to idolatry or turn stones into bread.
In this answer (again) Christ would teach us here to be resolute, howsoever God’s blessing does not concur with our gettings, as it doth not when wee get them by indirect means, contrary to God word. To goods so gotten, God will add sorrow: for The blessing of the Lord maketh rich, and he doth adde no sorrowes with it. Proverb. 10. 22. When GOD gives riches, he gives quietness withal: but if God give them not, we were as good be without them, whether they bee gotten by oppression or violence, Proverbs 4. 17 or by fraud & deceit, Proverbs 20. 17.
For these two be the quick-silver and brimstone of the Devil’s Alchymistry. God will add sorrow to them: for though they be pleasant at the first, Proverbs 20. 17. and money gotten by stinking means, smells like other money (as an Emperor said): and bread so gotten, taste like other bread: yet in the end a plain conclusion and experiment [the result of experience] will make it manifest, that it was made of stones, and had sorrow mingled or added to it.
And therefore, it shall be either an occasion or matter of the disease called the stone [kidney stones, gall stones, etc] or it shall turn [make putrid] his meat [food] in his bowels [guts], & fill him with the gall of asps, Job. 20. 14. or as As••s [the text here is missing] oppression by delicacy, became an occasion of the dropsy or gout: or else shall the executioner catch all that he hath, & the stranger spoil [take his property] him. Psa. 109. 11 or spend them upon Phisitions [physicians], Mar. 5. 26; or on lawyers: or else, though God suffer them to enjoy them quiet all their lifetime, and even to die by their flesh-pots; yet on their death-bed they shall find such a grudging and torment in their conscience, that they will wish that they had starved for hunger, before they had begun to use any such means. Or if God in his judgements (for their greater torment) suffer them to die in their beds, without any remorse of conscience, like blocks, or like an ox dying in a ditch; at the last day they shall feel a gnashing in their teeth, and then they will know it was made of stones.
God’s Word has two basic aspects. First, is the Word of God which creates and sustains this universe. All things have come into existence as the result of God speaks. All things continue to exist by operation of God’s Word:
Hebrews 1:1–3 (ESV)
1 Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. 3 He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,
Second, God’s Word is given to know how to live. Westminster Catechism question 5: “What do the Scriptures principally teach? Answer: The Scriptures principally teach, what man is to believe concerning God, and what duty God requires of man.”
If we live in this world sustained by God’s Word without living according to the direction given by God’s Word, we live at odds to God and to the world. To live without reliance upon God’s direction tells two things about our heart:
1 To live contrary to God’s direction is to without faith. We strike out on our own because we do not believe God will provide for us. Such thinking is foolish. The whole created order exists and continues by God’s power. To trust in our wits and the creature’s regular function is to deny that God has power over all things, and to not realize that God can direct all things at his own power.
2 To live contrary to God’s direction is to live in idolatry. It is to trust the creature rather than the Creator.
Moreover, to live contrary to God’s direction will eventually result in our loss. We may think that sin has brought us prosperity, but it has only brought us deceit. Perhaps in this world and certainly in the judgment we will learn that if we seek to turn stones into bread contrary to God’s direction.
The use of this information is to examine our own hearts. Sin is always a way to avoid some consequence of the fall without trusting in God’s goodness and direction. We may have many justifications for our sinful behavior, but the purpose is always to live without God, which makes us faithless idolators. Where then am I not trusting in God’s direction? What excuse have I made to justify this rebellion? And also, to think upon the consequences which will befall us if we do not repent. Consequences for sin are a kindness of God to stop our sin. Consider the consequences before they are suffer. Repent and avoid the injury which is sure to come.
 There are two ways in which God may be said to speak. One form of speech, is the speech which creates and and maintains creation and manages providence. The second form of speech is speech which comes from a prophet. This discussion of the two forms of God’s speech is meant for us to understand what is meant when Jesus answers the Devil and explains that we live by the Word of God. Before we can understand his response, we must understand what is meant by “every word which proceeds from the mouth of God.”
when you open your hand, they are filled with good things.
29 When you hide your face, they are dismayed;
when you take away their breath, they die
and return to their dust.
 The two ways in which we consider the proposition that God speaks. On one hand there is the maintenance of life. If God withdraws his Spirit, all things die. Second, the prophetic word administers sanctification and brings about eternal life.
 Isaiah 59:21 (ESV) “And as for me, this is my covenant with them,” says the Lord: “My Spirit that is upon you, and my words that I have put in your mouth, shall not depart out of your mouth, or out of the mouth of your offspring, or out of the mouth of your children’s offspring,” says the Lord, “from this time forth and forevermore.” This verse is a reference to the work of God done through Jesus, “Two items in this verse come without forewarning: the covenant which the Lord grants to them, and the covenant mediator, the singular you, through whom the promised blessings of the divine Spirit and word are secured for endless generations. The situation, however, is parallel to the covenant references, equally unheralded, in 42:6; 49:8; 54:10; 55:3. All these are directly related to the Servant and his work. According to 49:8 and 54:10, it is through the Servant that the people of Jacob/Zion enter into the blessings of restoration and peace; according to 42:6 and 55:3, blessings are covenanted world-wide through the Servant. The singular you thus stands in a Servant position. Divine action has secured a world-wide reverential people and a company of penitents in Jacob, and there is a person whom we may call the Anointed One, for the Lord’s Spirit is upon him, through whom their relationship with the Lord is eternally secure. Like the Servant (53:10), those to whom he secures these covenant blessings are his ‘seed’. The emphatic pronoun, As for me, underlines divine commitment. The covenant does not rest on human wish or need but on divine determination.” J. A. Motyer, The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction & Commentary (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996), 492–493.
 We can live contrary to the word of God which is given to guide our action and understanding. But when we do so, we cannot expect that God will bless our actions.
 God commanded Abraham to offer up Isaac the child of promise as a sacrifice. The event is confusing and striking on many grounds, and the understanding of has provoked enormous commentary.
 Latin, roughly, “On the mountain, the Lord provided by foresight.” When it came to offer up Isaac, the Lord stopped Abraham and provided a substitute. The Lord had the foresight to provide that substitute.
 Warrant and appointment means by right and command or right and direction of.
 Exodus 14:21 (ESV) “Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the Lord drove the sea back by a strong east wind all night and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.”
 The Manna God provided in the wilderness fell from the sky. But wheat used to make bread grows upward from the earth.
 Deuteronomy 8:3–4 (ESV) “And he humbled you and let you hunger and fed you with manna, which you did not know, nor did your fathers know, that he might make you know that man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by every word that comes from the mouth of the Lord. 4 Your clothing did not wear out on you and your foot did not swell these forty years.” The power of God causes all things. Rather than rely upon the creature, you should rely upon the Creator. This raises the question of primary and secondary causes: God is the primary/first cause of all things. He causes gravity to work. He causes wind to move by means of atmospheric pressure, et cetera. The Westminster Confession states this as follows: “I. God from all eternity did, by the most wise and holy counsel of his own will, freely and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass;1 yet so as thereby neither is God the author of sin, nor is violence offered to the will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established.” Philip Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical Notes: The Evangelical Protestant Creeds, with Translations, vol. 3 (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1882), 771. Clothing normally wears out following in a secondary cause established by God. But God, as the primary cause is free to alter the functioning of the secondary cause. There is a strange idea that if God were to do something, it would have any apparent secondary cause. That is not the Christian understanding. It is actually more akin to a pagan theology, where a god keeps winds in a bag (for instance); or a drunk god hurls lightening at the earth.
 Numbers 20:10–11 (ESV) “10 Then Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock, and he said to them, “Hear now, you rebels: shall we bring water for you out of this rock?” 11 And Moses lifted up his hand and struck the rock with his staff twice, and water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their livestock.”
Since God is sovereign over all things, and is not bound by the secondary causes, God will always do what is needed for his people. Jesus by refusing to take matters into his own hand and being willing to submit to God’s will demonstrates his faith toward God. Jesus trusted the providence and goodness of God even to the point of death. For this, Jesus was exalted.
Philippians 2:5–11 (ESV) “5 Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, 6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, 7 but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. 8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. 9 Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, 10 so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.”
 God may not provide for us in the same miraculous way in which he provided for the Israelites in the wilderness, but he will provide for us that which we need.
 Jesus acted according to the will of God did not fear what would happen. This caveat, being in God’s will, is an answer to Andrews’ previous point that when we sin against God we have no basis to hope God will bless it.
 The Scripture says explicitly that the Spirit drove Jesus into the wilderness. The figure of speech is quite striking. The language typically refers to an involuntary forcing another to go somewhere.
 Matthew 4:11 (ESV) “Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and were ministering to him.”
 1 Kings 17:1–7 (ESV) “Now Elijah the Tishbite, of Tishbe in Gilead, said to Ahab, “As the Lord, the God of Israel, lives, before whom I stand, there shall be neither dew nor rain these years, except by my word.” 2 And the word of the Lord came to him: 3 “Depart from here and turn eastward and hide yourself by the brook Cherith, which is east of the Jordan. 4 You shall drink from the brook, and I have commanded the ravens to feed you there.” 5 So he went and did according to the word of the Lord. He went and lived by the brook Cherith that is east of the Jordan. 6 And the ravens brought him bread and meat in the morning, and bread and meat in the evening, and he drank from the brook. 7 And after a while the brook dried up, because there was no rain in the land.”
 When it came time for the Israelites to flee their slavery, the Egyptians provided them with gold, silver, and clothing. Ex. 12:35.
 Matthew 6:25–34 (ESV) 25 “Therefore I tell you, do not be anxious about your life, what you will eat or what you will drink, nor about your body, what you will put on. Is not life more than food, and the body more than clothing? 26 Look at the birds of the air: they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they? 27 And which of you by being anxious can add a single hour to his span of life? 28 And why are you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow: they neither toil nor spin, 29 yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 30 But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today is alive and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, will he not much more clothe you, O you of little faith? 31 Therefore do not be anxious, saying, ‘What shall we eat?’ or ‘What shall we drink?’ or ‘What shall we wear?’ 32 For the Gentiles seek after all these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them all. 33 But seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be added to you. 34 Therefore do not be anxious about tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Sufficient for the day is its own trouble.”
 Daniel’s three friends were threatened with being cast into a fire because they refused to worship an idol set up by the king of Babylon. They refused saying they trusted God to provide for them, Daniel 3:17 (ESV) “If this be so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver us out of your hand, O king.”
 To rely upon the creature, the things made, rather than the Creator is idolatry:
Romans 1:21–25 (ESV)
“21 For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things.
24 Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, 25 because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen.” In idolatry, the idol is a means of achieving some desired end by using the idols a means to that end. A statute of Baal together the property ritual was able to compel/intice Baal into making it rain, so that my crops would grow. Baal, and all gods, are simply the various powers in the world. If you think of idolatry as bad science, it makes sense.
 These are the elements which are produced or are used by Devil. The Devil is pictured as an Alchemist who had the knowledge to turn one-thing into another. Alchemistry was associated both with magic and with science. Again, you should think of magic as bad science.
 “Pecunia non olet — meaning “money does not stink” or “money is not tainted” — is a famous phrase attributed to the Roman emperor Vespasian. The meaning behind the words is fairly simple: it doesn’t matter how you got your money, because it all has the same value.” https://allthatsinteresting.com/pecunia-non-olet
2 For wicked and deceitful mouths are opened against me,
speaking against me with lying tongues.
3 They encircle me with words of hate,
and attack me without cause.
4 In return for my love they accuse me,
but I give myself to prayer.
5 So they reward me evil for good,
and hatred for my love.
6 Appoint a wicked man against him;
let an accuser stand at his right hand.
7 When he is tried, let him come forth guilty;
let his prayer be counted as sin!
8 May his days be few;
may another take his office!
9 May his children be fatherless
and his wife a widow!
10 May his children wander about and beg,
seeking food far from the ruins they inhabit!
11 May the creditor seize all that he has;
may strangers plunder the fruits of his toil!
 Mark 5:24–27 (ESV) “24 And he went with him. And a great crowd followed him and thronged about him. 25 And there was a woman who had had a discharge of blood for twelve years, 26 and who had suffered much under many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was no better but rather grew worse. 27 She had heard the reports about Jesus and came up behind him in the crowd and touched his garment.”
 Perhaps their sinful conduct will result in troubles which will force them to spend their money on doctors and lawyers.
Matt. 4. ver. 4. But he answering said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.
It was a good service that Elisha (2. Kings 6. 9) did, to tell the king of the trains laid for him, when they lay in Ambush against him. And even this is the first use that we have of our Savior’s Temptations.
It warns us afore-hand of the Devil’s coming, so that we may have time to prepare ourselves accordingly. For as at that time the Devil came upon Christ when hunger pinched him: so where we are in any distress, we are to look for temptations.
This temptation hath two parts. First comes (Si) a distrust: Secondly follows unlawful means. Having laid this foundation, that bread is necessary to bee had when one is hungry, he infers that God helps not, nor supplies thy want: Therefore, God is not thy Father, Mat. 7. 9 and therefore, depend no longer on him, but shift for yourself. This is the effect of the Devil’s argument.
The Fathers upon the words Eph. 6. 16. (Take the shield of faith, to quench all the fiery darts of the Devil:) do note, that about every one of the darts or temptations of the Devil, there are (as it were) balls of wildfire. For being to assault our obedience, & knowing that faith is our shield: to that end he uses the arrowhead, which is distrust in God; about which is fire, to wit, the using of unlawful means, to consume our obedience, which will consume our shield of faith, and so make way for the dart to kill or wound vs. So that his drift is, to bring our adoption or Sonship to a Si.
There is no doubt, but Christ was able to have turned stones into bread: but why would he not then follow the Devil’s advice? The Devil by saying, Say unto these stones, seems to acknowledge, that he had the force to have done it, even by his bare word: for even stones are said to hears voice of God, and to obey his commandment; and not only God’s, but even Gods’ servants, as 1. Kings 13. 5 when the man of GOD had pronounced, that the altar should rent in sunder, it did so. And Matt. 27. 51. when Jesus cried out with a loud voice, the vail of the Temple rent in twain, the earth did quake, and the stones were cloven. The dead men are worse than stones, yet they in their graves heard his voice.
And not only was he able to turn stones into bread, but into men also, as children to Abraham of stones, Matt. 3. 9. If therefore it had pleased him, he was as well able at this time to have turned stones into bread, as after he turned water into wine, John 2. 10.
It was no less possible to him (no doubt) to have saved himself, when theJews scoffingly bad  him, Matt. 27. 42. as to have saved others; and to have come down from the Cross being alive; as it was after for him, not only being dead and buried, but a great stone being over him, to remove it, and come out of the grave, Matt. 28. 2. He had power to both, but not will alike to both.
But why would he not here use his power, for the satisfying of his hunger, and follow the Devil’s advice.
In setting down the history of turning water into wine, it is thus farther said, that he did it, that his disciples might believe in him, John 2. 11.
That was the reason that moved him to the working of that miracle: and because there was no such cause here, he did it not. For the Devil would not believe in him (he knew) though he had done it. The Devil desired him, but to have him show what he could do, for a need only, for a vaunt of his power.
Wherein we see the humor [nature] of pride, that made him at the first to fall.
It is the same temptation that his kinsfolks [relatives] used, No man dooth anie thing secretly, that seeketh to bee famous: if thou doost these things, shewe thy selfe to the world. But see how unfitly the temptation hangs together. He should rather have said, If you be hungry; than If you be the Son of God: and then rather have bid him fast forty days more, than turn the stones into bread.
If it had been to have made a Son of God, Christ would have done it: but not to have showed himself to be the Son of God.
But it may be asked, why did Christ vouchsafe to give him any answer at all; whereas he might have commanded him to silence, and tormented him before his time, and have punished him for his sauciness? When Peter tempted him, he cut him up very sharply, saying; Come behind me Satan, Mark. 8. 33. Why did he not answer the Devil so? He might have enjoined him [stopped him by means of an order] and thrown him into the bottomless pit, Luke 8. 31. or at the least bidden him, Avoid Satan, vers. 10.
Augustine answers this doubt, that Christ answered in the like time, to teach us to answer: willing us thereby (as Abimelech did his soldiers) to do as he had done before, Judges 9. 48. So, Christ is our example, John 13. 15. and bids us do as he has done. Christ is our Captain, he has gone before us, and shewed us how to behave ourselves in fight: when the Devil assaults us with distrust, then are we to ward it off with a Text of God’s providence; and so of the rest, as he has done before us.
Our Savior’s shield, whereby (we see) he bears off all the Devil’s darts, is covered all over with Scriptum est [Latin, it is written]. We have here a brief view of the Church’s armory, Cant. 4. 4 of the Tower of David, built for defense. Here be the shields wherewith Solomon’s Temple was hanged, and which Paulcalleth The weapons of our warfare, 2. Cor. 10. 4. not carnal [physical as opposed to spiritual] but mighty (through GOD) to cast down holds.
When we fall into troubles, the Devil will come with the word “If.”
Our defense against temptation is the shield of faith. Andrews takes this from the discussion of “spiritual battle” in Ephesians 6. The Devil will throw fiery darts and we protect ourselves by means of the shield of faith. The passage from Ephesians reads:
“Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his might. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places. Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand firm. Stand therefore, having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and, as shoes for your feet, having put on the readiness given by the gospel of peace. In all circumstances take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming darts of the evil one; and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, praying at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication. To that end, keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints, and also for me, that words may be given to me in opening my mouth boldly to proclaim the mystery of the gospel, for which I am an ambassador in chains, that I may declare it boldly, as I ought to speak.” (Ephesians 6:10–20, ESV)
Andrews picks up on this language and uses it to analyze the conflict faced by Jesus. Jesus is directly faced with Satan. Satan throws darts of temptation. How does one stop the dart? With a shield. The shield is faith.
What then will defeat a shield of faith? Distrust. How is that distrust sought? By the word “If.”
This is an interesting bit of work by Andrews. The temptation passage makes no express mention of “spiritual warfare”; and Paul makes no allusion to the Temptation of Jesus. On what basis can Andrews justify this use?
It cannot be based upon a narrow understanding of each book of the Bible being a stand-alone document. Andrews sees the text as a whole.
Second, he thinks through the implications of each text. If one is directly confronted by Satan with the aim of Satan destroying your soul, this would be the very definition of spiritual warfare. What does the Bible say about spiritual warfare? Ephesians 6 has the longest discussion of this concept.
In that text I see that Satan throws darts, and it is a shield of faith which extinguishes those darts. What then would defeat “faith?” Doubt is the defeater of faith.
Third, he comes back to the temptation text: How does Satan seek to defeat Jesus at the first? By causing doubt: just as the Serpent did in the Garden. Doubt is the first move. How is the doubt generated, by the “If” question. In the previous sermon Andrews noted that an exhausted, famished, near dead Jesus could be prey to such a question. That voice from 40 days ago, did you really hear that? Are you really who you think you are? Is all of this real?
Andrews then anticipates the next question which may arise. Why didn’t Jesus just turn the stones into bread, so the Devil would leave him alone. Jesus performed miracles for a purpose; not just to do things. In John 2, the water is turned to wine as a sign, a pointer for the disciples to know who he really was. But why perform a miracle for the Devil? He wouldn’t believe and worship; he wouldn’t go away.
Andrews then notes an interesting parallel, the mockers at the cross structured the same taunt/temptation: If you are the Son of God, then you should save yourself. The Devil said feed yourself. The mockers said come down from the cross. While Jesus could have done both, he was not going to permit his mission to be dictated by his enemies. Jesus bore the cross and then rose from the dead. He saved himself, in his own time.
Another question arises: Do you see how Andrews anticipates questions which may occur to those listening. He signals yet another objection by saying, “But it may be asked.” This is an important movement in any sermon (or good lecture). What would trouble someone here?
The next question is Why didn’t Jesus just tell the Devil to shove off? Jesus was comfortable rebuking Peter, when he said something out of place. Jesus could have ended the Devil’s work right there.
Augustine answered the question by saying, the Lord suffered the temptation to give us an example to follow. When the Devil shows up with his “If”, trying to dislodge our faith, we are to answer with the text. The words, “It is written” are on the shield. Use it. Our weapons are not physical, they are spiritual.
 “Once when the king of Syria was warring against Israel, he took counsel with his servants, saying, “At such and such a place shall be my camp.” But the man of God sent word to the king of Israel, “Beware that you do not pass this place, for the Syrians are going down there.” And the king of Israel sent to the place about which the man of God told him. Thus he used to warn him, so that he saved himself there more than once or twice.” (2 Kings 6:8–10, ESV)
 Here the word “train” means a “decoy” or “trick”. It seems to be metaphorical from the concept “to drag along.” So Elisha saw how to avoid an ambush, as did Jesus in his temptation.
 Whenever we find ourselves presented some difficulty, we should expect that our trouble will be accompanied by a temptation.
 “Si” is Latin for “if.” The “si” probably emphasizes the formality of the logical structure, If X is true, then Y. If you are the Son of God, then make these stones bread.
 God will not provide you with anything you lack.
 “Or which one of you, if his son asks him for bread, will give him a stone?” (Matthew 7:9, ESV) The implication is that if God were really your father, he would give you bread and not a stone. A good father would do this. You admit the same yourself. But here you are with stones and not with bread. This is an interesting observation by Andrews: The Sermon on the Mount came after the Temptation. Jesus is here alluding to the temptation, both in terms of structure: bread and stones; but also in terms of implication/application: What a father does.
 To “shift for yourself” is to take care of yourself without receiving help from others.
 The theologians, commentators, pastors previously in the Church. It is useful to note that Andrews, like the others who were of the Reformation (Andrews being third generation) did not discount the theological world prior to Luther (as it seems many contemporary protestants thinks necessary). He does not automatically agree with the consensus, but he does give it consideration.
 Our defense in temptation is faith. Paul references the “shield of faith” in our spiritual combat. Eph. 6:16. Therefore, to disarm us, the Devil must defeat that shield. This he does by seeking to make us doubt. He raises that doubt by means of an “If” (Latin, Si).
 By making this the basis of the temptation, the Devil ironically acknowledges that Jesus is who he claimed to be.
 “And behold, a man of God came out of Judah by the word of the Lord to Bethel. Jeroboam was standing by the altar to make offerings. And the man cried against the altar by the word of the Lord and said, “O altar, altar, thus says the Lord: ‘Behold, a son shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name, and he shall sacrifice on you the priests of the high places who make offerings on you, and human bones shall be burned on you.’ ” And he gave a sign the same day, saying, “This is the sign that the Lord has spoken: ‘Behold, the altar shall be torn down, and the ashes that are on it shall be poured out.’ ” And when the king heard the saying of the man of God, which he cried against the altar at Bethel, Jeroboam stretched out his hand from the altar, saying, “Seize him.” And his hand, which he stretched out against him, dried up, so that he could not draw it back to himself. The altar also was torn down, and the ashes poured out from the altar, according to the sign that the man of God had given by the word of the Lord.” (1 Kings 13:1–5, ESV)
 “And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and yielded up his spirit. And behold, the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. And the earth shook, and the rocks were split. The tombs also were opened. And many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised, and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many.” (Matthew 27:50–53, ESV)
 “But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, “You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bear fruit in keeping with repentance. And do not presume to say to yourselves, ‘We have Abraham as our father,’ for I tell you, God is able from these stones to raise up children for Abraham.” (Matthew 3:7–9, ESV)
 “His mother said to the servants, “Do whatever he tells you.” Now there were six stone water jars there for the Jewish rites of purification, each holding twenty or thirty gallons. Jesus said to the servants, “Fill the jars with water.” And they filled them up to the brim. And he said to them, “Now draw some out and take it to the master of the feast.” So they took it. When the master of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and did not know where it came from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew), the master of the feast called the bridegroom and said to him, “Everyone serves the good wine first, and when people have drunk freely, then the poor wine. But you have kept the good wine until now.”” (John 2:5–10, ESV)
Bad is the archaic past tense of “to bid”, that is, to order or direct.
 Those who mocked Jesus at his death were following in the same pattern as the Devil in this temptation. If you are the Son of God, then you should just come down of the Cross. Jesus plainly had the power, because he soon did the far greater task of resurrecting from the dead and moving the stone from his grave.
 While Jesus had the ability to either come down from the cross or to raise from the dead, he did not desire to do both things. He did not come down from the cross, not from a lack of ability but from his own desire.
 The determination of Jesus to exercise extraordinary power was dictated toward some greater goal. “This, the first of his signs, Jesus did at Cana in Galilee, and manifested his glory. And his disciples believed in him.” (John 2:11, ESV) The miracle was given as a “sign” to bring about the disciples’ belief.
 Performing the miracle would not bring about the Devil’s belief. Therefore, there was no need to perform the sign.
 The Devil wanted Jesus to perform the miracle for the purpose of Jesus “showing off” (vaunt) his power.
 “So his brothers said to him, “Leave here and go to Judea, that your disciples also may see the works you are doing. For no one works in secret if he seeks to be known openly. If you do these things, show yourself to the world.”” (John 7:3–4, ESV)
 He had no need to prove himself. He was unconcerned with fame or the opinion of others. “But Jesus on his part did not entrust himself to them, because he knew all people and needed no one to bear witness about man, for he himself knew what was in man.” (John 2:24–25, ESV)
 Why did Jesus even take the trouble to answer the Devil. He could have forced the Devil to be quiet and sent him to punishment for being so disrespectful of God.
 “Then Jesus said to him, “Be gone, Satan! For it is written, “ ‘You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve.’ ”” (Matthew 4:10, ESV)
 By answering in this manner, Christ gave us an example of how to respond to temptation.
 “Your neck is like the tower of David, built in rows of stone; on it hang a thousand shields, all of them shields of warriors.” (Song of Solomon 4:4, ESV)
 “I, Paul, myself entreat you, by the meekness and gentleness of Christ—I who am humble when face to face with you, but bold toward you when I am away!— I beg of you that when I am present I may not have to show boldness with such confidence as I count on showing against some who suspect us of walking according to the flesh. For though we walk in the flesh, we are not waging war according to the flesh. For the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh but have divine power to destroy strongholds.” (2 Corinthians 10:1–4, ESV)
Now we are to consider the diversity and order of the temptations, & then will we handle them particularly. And first we are to note, that though there are but these three recorded, yet he endured divers [various] others. His whole life was full of temptations, as may appear by Luke 22. 28. It is said Luke 4. 2. that he was tempted forty days of the Devil whereas these three Temptations here set down, were not till after the end of forty days. These only are mentioned, but there were other not written, as divers of his miracles are unwritten. John 20:31. Only so much was written, as was expedient.
These three are a brief abridgement of all his Temptation. As it is true that Paul saith, that Christ resembled Adam, and was made a quickening spirit, as Adam was a living soul, 1. Cor. 15. 45. And the bringing of the Children of Israel out of Egypt, by being called out of Egypt, Matt. 2. 15. So may Christ and Adam be compared in these three temptations. For they both were tempted with concupiscence [strong, sinful desire] of the flesh, concupiscence of the eye, & pride of life, 1. John 2. 16.
In Adam, the Devil first brought him into a concept, that God envied his good, and of purpose kept him hood-winked, least he should see his good, as we see falconers put hoods over hawks’ eyes, to make them more quiet & ruly [subject to being ruled]. Secondly, he lulls him on to a proud conceit [thought] of himself, by persuading him, that by eating he should be like God. Thirdly he shows the fruit, which was pleasant. So in Christs temptation first, he would have brought him to murmur against God: secondly to presume: & thirdly to commit idolatry, all which are set down.
And under these three heads come all temptations, Numb. 14. & 21. and Exod. 32.
To some of these extremes will the Devil seek to drive one.
First, by distrust he will seek to drive us to use unlawful means, for the obtaining of necessary things, as bread is when a man is hungry. Or if we be in no such want, that that temptation cannot take place, then (through superfluity) he will tempt s to wanton and unnecessary desires, as to throw ourselves down, that the Angels may take us up: and having prevailed so far, then he carries us to the Devil and all. All this will I give thee, there is his All: Fall down and worship me, there is the Devil with it: so (that in this respect) may it well be said, that The way of a Serpent is over a stone, Proverb. 30. 19. He goes so slyly, that a man sees him in, before he can tell what way, or how he got in. First he wraps himself in necessity, and thereby winds himself in unperceived then he brings us to make riches our God.
Now let us see his Darts. The first is, of making stones bread. This may well be called the hungry temptation. The stream of the Doctors, make Adam’s offence the sin of gluttony: but Bucer thinks, that this temptation is rather to be referred to distrust and despair. There is small likelihood, that one should sin in gluttony by eating bread only. The Devil’s desire was only, that the stones might be turned into bread, and that after so long a Fast: and then if the temptation had been to gluttony, Christ’s answer had been nothing to the purpose; the Devil might well have replied against the insufficiency of it. For gluttony is to be answered by a text willing sobriety, whereas this text which Christ answers by, contains rather an assertion of Gods’ providence: and therefore, our Savior should have seemed very unskillful in defending himself. The temptation therefore is to distrust.
This stands well with the Devil’s cunning in fight: for by this he shows first even at the throat, and at that which is the life of a Christian: to wit his faith; as a man would say, even at that which overcomes the world, 1. John 5. 5. He tempted him to such a distrust, as was in the Israelites, Ex. 17 7. when they asked if God were with them or no.
So, he made Adam think, God cared not for him: so here the Devil premises a doubt to shake his faith, wherein Christ made no doubt, Si filius Dei es. [If you are the Son of God.]
Indeed, you heard a voice say, you were the beloved Son of God, but are you so indeed? or was it not rather a delusion? You see you are almost starved for want of bread: well, would God have suffered you so to be if you had been his Filius dilectus [beloved Son]? No, you are some hunger-starved child. So, Luke 22. 3. Christ prayed that Peter’s faith might not fail. It was that the Devil shot at. He is a roaring lion seeking to devour us, whom we must resist by faith, 1. Pet. 5. 8.
It is our faith that he aim at 1. Thess. 3. 5. For having overthrown that, disobedience soon will follow. Having abolished the stablisher of the Law, Roman. 3. 31. the breach of the Law must needs [by logical necessity] follow. He hath then fit time to set us a work, about making stones into bread, that is, to get our living by unlawful means. First, shipwreck of faith, then of obedience.
The Devil here seeing him in great want and hunger, would thereby bring in doubt, that he was not the Son of God, which is not a good argument. For whether we respect the natural tokens of God’s favor, we see they happen not to the wisest and men of best and greatest knowledge, as appears in the ninth chap. of Eccl. vers. 11 or the supernatural favor of God, we shall see Abraham forced to fly his country into Egypt for famine, Gen, 10. 12. so did Isaac, Gen. 26. 1. & Iacob likewise was in the same distress, Gen. 43. 1. Notwithstanding that God was called The God of Abraham, Isaack and Jacob; yet were they all three like to be hunger-starved. Yea, not only so, but for their faith, many were burned and stoned, of whom the world was not worthy, Heb. 11. 37. So fared it with the Apostles, they were hungy, naked, and a thirst, 1. Cor. 4. 11. But what do we speak of the adopted sons of God, when as his own natural Son suffered as much, nay, far more? Here we se he was hungry, also he was wearied with travail and fain [desirous] to rest. John4. 6. he had no house to hide his head in, whereas foxes have holes.
If thou be the Son of God.
The heathens have observed, that in rhetoric it is a point of chiefest cunning, when you would out-face a man, or importune him to do a thing, to press & urge him with that, which he will not, or cannot for shame deny to be in himself: as by saying; If you have any wit, then you will do thus and thus: if you be an honest man or a good fellow, do this. So here the Devil (not being to learn any point of subtlety) comes to our Savior, saying, If thou be the Son of God, (as it may be doubted, you being in this case) then, make these stones bread. No, no, it follows not: a man may be the Son of God, and not shw it by any such art. So when Pilate asked, who accused Christ? They [the ones bringing the accusation against Jesus] answered, If he had not been a malefactor, we would not have brought him before thee, John 18. 30. They were jolly grave men [very serious men], it was a flat flattery: and in John 21. 23. there is the like. This ought to put us in mind, when we are tempted in like manner, that we take heed we be not out-faced.
In the matter itself we are to consider these points: First the Devil sets it down for a ground, that (follow what will) bread must needs be had. [The Devil asserts: You must have bread.]
Therefore, Christ first closes with him, Admit he had bread, were he then safe? No, We live not by bread only: so that bread is not of absolute necessity. Well, what follows of that? Bread you must needs have, you see your want [lack], God has left off to provide for you. Then comes the conclusion, Therefore, shift for your self [take are of yourself] as well as you can.
First, he solicits us to a mutinous repining within ourselves, as Heb. 3. 8. Harden not your hearts, as in the day of temptation, whereby he forces us to break out into such like conceits [thoughts], as Psalm. 116. 11. I said in my distresse, that all men be liars: and Psalm. 31. 22. I said in my hast, I am cast off. Thus closely he distrusted God, in saying, his Prophets prophecy loes, till at last, we even open our mouths against God himself, and say, This evil commeth from the Lord, shall I attend on the Lord any longer? 2. Booke of Kings, chapter 6. and verse 33. Hunger and shame is all we shall get at God’s hands. And so having cast off God, betake themselves to some other patron, & then the Devil is fittest for their turn.
For when we are fallen out with one, it is best serving his enemy, and to retain to the contrary faction. Then we seek a familiar (with Saul) to answer us, 1. Sam. 28. 7. But what did the Devil tell him? Did he bring comfort with him? No, he tells him, that tomorrow he & his sons should dye. So here does the Devil bring a stone with him. What Father (says Christ) if his Sonne aske him bread, would give him a stone? Matthew the seventh chapter and in the ninth verse: yet the Devil does so; Christ was hungry, and the Devil shows him stones.
Here is the Devil’s comfort, here be stones for thee, if thou canst devise any way to make these stones bread, thou art well; whereas we do not use to make bread of stones, but of wheat, to work it with the sweat of our brows. To get it so, we learn Gen. 3. 19.
By extortion and usury we may make stones into bread, that is the Devil’s Alchemistry: or happily we may make bread of nothing, when a man gets a thing by another’s oversight, Gen. 43. 12. Or else, what and if we can overreach our brother in subtilty, and go beyond him with a trick of wit or cunning? Let no man defraud or oppress his brother in any matter: for the Lord is avenged of all such, 1. Thess. 4.6. The one is called The bread of violence and oppression, Proverbs 4. 17. The other, The bread of deceit.
They are indeed both made of stones, for they still retain their former property, as the event will declare. For though in the beginning such bread be pleasant, Proverb. 20. 17. yet after his mouth is but filled with gravel, Proverb. 20. 17. After which will consequently follow, gnashing of teeth.
This section of the sermon begins to consider the first temptation.
“Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. And after fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry. And the tempter came and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, command these stones to become loaves of bread.” But he answered, “It is written, “‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.’”” (Matthew 4:1–4, ESV)
We must not think that these were the only temptations which Jesus ever faced. But there are representative temptations. The temptations follow in a pattern which was laid down in the Garden when the Serpent tempted Eve. First, there is the temptation to distrust God. Second, there is the temptation to trust yourself. Third, there is the temptation to full idolatry.
Thus, in the attack, the Devil must begin by striking at our faith. He does this with Christ by first asking him, are you really the Son of God. That voice you thought you heard 40 days ago? Did you really hear anything? Really? If you are the Son of God, then why are you here in the desert starving to death?
You cannot really trust God to take care of you. That is for certain. But I’ll tell you what, if you are really the Son of God you could certainly do something little like turning these stones into bread.
If Jesus had made bread, would the Devil have left him alone? “Oh, you are the Son of God, my bad.” No. The Devil would have continued to press Jesus to distrust God. The attack at each step was an attack upon trust in God. That is the nature of temptation. It attacks at faith: God is not to be trusted. You can only trust yourself.
This is the critical element of this section of the sermon: Temptation first comes at faith. It seeks to dislodge us from God. The response must be then to focus on our trust of God.
Jesus saw through the temptation and knew what the Devil aimed at: His answer, Man shall live by what God says.
Andrews then turns the matter around and looks at the Devil’s temptation the other direction. The Devil comes to us when we are hungry and he only offers us stones. He says, see if you can eat that? He is not seeking to free us, but to ruin us.
What is the Devil’s means of getting bread? It is not farming and waiting and making bread. It is stealing, oppression, fraud. If we eat such bread, it will turn to gravel in our mouths.
 “Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.” (John 20:30–31, ESV)
 The three temptations of Satan which are recorded should be understood as a sort of summary of all the temptations Christ suffered.
 “So is it with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable; what is raised is imperishable. It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it is raised in power. It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. But it is not the spiritual that is first but the natural, and then the spiritual. The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. As was the man of dust, so also are those who are of the dust, and as is the man of heaven, so also are those who are of heaven. Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the man of heaven.” (1 Corinthians 15:42–49, ESV)
 “Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world—the desires of the flesh and the desires of the eyes and pride of life—is not from the Father but is from the world.” (1 John 2:15–16, ESV)
 The Devil was the first to trick (hoodwink) Adam into believing that God did not want Adam to have good. The Devil was thus (falsely) offering Adam sight.
 “Nevertheless, with most of them God was not pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. Now these things took place as examples for us, that we might not desire evil as they did. Do not be idolaters as some of them were; as it is written, “The people sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play.”” (1 Corinthians 10:5–7, ESV)
 The temptation of Christ follows the same pattern as took place in the Garden. The first move was to assert that God was withholding some good thing. To Eve, the Serpent says that God is withholding the fruit because God does not want Eve to know good and evil. To Christ, the Devil says God is withholding food from you, why don’t you make bread? Second, the Serpent tells Eve you should eat the fruit, it won’t hurt you. It will make you better. To Christ he says, throw yourself down from the temple. You won’t be hurt. Third, the Serpent bring Eve to actually rebel against God. To Christ, the Devil says, just worship me.
 Martin Bucer, protestant theologian, 1491 – 1551.
 The majority of theologians speak of the temptation to make bread being a temptation to gluttony. But that does not make sense. Why offer bread if it was gluttony. Moreover, the response to a temptation to gluttony is sober self-control. But Jesus does not speak about self-control. Instead, the temptation was to despair of God’s oversight of the world, “Why isn’t God taking better care of you?” Jesus goes to his trust in God, not to he has self-control over hunger.
 “Who is it that overcomes the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God?” (1 John 5:5, ESV)
 “And he called the name of the place Massah and Meribah, because of the quarreling of the people of Israel, and because they tested the Lord by saying, “Is the Lord among us or not?”” (Exodus 17:7, ESV) The people became discontent and did not trust the Lord. And so they asked, Is the Lord among us?
 The Devil sought to sway Christ’s faith by saying, Well if you are really the Son of God.
 Andrews here makes an interesting observation. When Jesus came up from being baptism a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved Son.” The observation by Andrews takes the humanity of Jesus seriously. Jesus has spent an impossible time alone in the wilderness. He must be near physical death. The comparison to Moses does not even seem appropriate at this level, because was apparently being supernaturally maintained. This fast level Jesus weak and hungry. Matt. 4:2. At that point, one might begin to wonder, did I really hear that voice?
 ““Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat,” (Luke 22:31, ESV)
 “Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. Resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same kinds of suffering are being experienced by your brotherhood throughout the world.” (1 Peter 5:8–9, ESV)
 “For this reason, when I could bear it no longer, I sent to learn about your faith, for fear that somehow the tempter had tempted you and our labor would be in vain.” (1 Thessalonians 3:5, ESV)
 If the Devil can cause us to doubt God, our obedience will fail.
 The Devil’s argument is not based upon a sound premise. We cannot tell whether we are God’s child merely by looking at our present physical circumstances. Sometimes the most wicked person has a long, profitable life; and the most faithful child becomes a martyr.
 Abraham and Isaac each had to flee the land due to famine. Jacob had to flee the potential violence of his brother. By looking at merely their circumstances, one could not necessarily conclude that they were favored by God.
 “And he said, “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.” (Exodus 3:6, ESV)
 “They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were killed with the sword. They went about in skins of sheep and goats, destitute, afflicted, mistreated— of whom the world was not worthy—wandering about in deserts and mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth. And all these, though commended through their faith, did not receive what was promised, since God had provided something better for us, that apart from us they should not be made perfect.” (Hebrews 11:37–40, ESV)
 “To the present hour we hunger and thirst, we are poorly dressed and buffeted and homeless,” (1 Corinthians 4:11, ESV)
 We are all children of God by adopted. Jesus is Son of God by nature.
 “Jacob’s well was there; so Jesus, wearied as he was from his journey, was sitting beside the well. It was about the sixth hour.” (John 4:6, ESV)
 “And Jesus said to him, “Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.”” (Matthew 8:20, ESV)
 It is a useful rhetorical trick to press someone to do something which it appears he must be obligated to do or he will lose his reputation. This permits you to gain a degree of control over the other person.
 There is no trick which the Devil does not know.
 The Devil, If you were really the Son of God, then you could turn these stones into bread. But being made to play tricks for the Devil is not necessary for Jesus to be the Son of God.
 “So the saying spread abroad among the brothers that this disciple was not to die; yet Jesus did not say to him that he was not to die, but, “If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you?”” (John 21:23, ESV)
 We should be careful and wise not to respond to every demand of a fool or one who is trying to manipulate us.
 Christ sees the trap: If he makes the bread, will the Devil leave him alone and admit that he is the Son of God? No. Jesus sees the trap as is shown by his response.
 The Devil says, You need bread. God is not going to help you. You have better help yourself. This will then lead to discontent. The examples in the next paragraph show instances of discontent.
 If we begin to distrust God, our complaints against God will grow into complete unbelief and rebellion.
 When grow to distrust God and rebel, we will turn to serve God’s enemy. It is interesting that turning to God’s enemy we often think ourselves to be serving no one. As if we were sufficiently clever to avoid the Devil’s scheme.
 Since Saul could no longer receive a word from the Lord, he went to see a witch. “Then Saul said to his servants, “Seek out for me a woman who is a medium, that I may go to her and inquire of her.” And his servants said to him, “Behold, there is a medium at En-dor.”” (1 Samuel 28:7, ESV) Saul will learn that he and his son will die the next day.
 “For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks it will be opened. Or which one of you, if his son asks him for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, will give him a serpent?” (Matthew 7:8–10, ESV)
 Andrews here turns the Devil’s temptation on him and in quite an ironic and funny manner. You want help from the Devil? Here is how the Devil helps: You’re hungry? Here are some stones. See if you can make yourself something to eat. But we don’t eat stones. We make bread from wheat.
 The way in which the Devil provides bread is by alchemistry like bread into stones, or deceit, or oppression, or stealing.
 “Bread gained by deceit is sweet to a man, but afterward his mouth will be full of gravel.” (Proverbs 20:17, ESV)
Lancelot Andrews’ Sermons on The Temptation of Christ, continued:
The Second Sermon.
Matt. 4:2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward hungry.
Now come we to the 7th and last circumstance. It may seem strange, that being about to present himself to the world, as Prince, Priest, and Prophet, that he would make his progress into the wilderness, and begin with a fast: for this was clean contrary [exact opposite] to the course and fashion of the world, which uses when any great matter is in hand, to make a preface, or Praeludium [prelude] with some great solemnity.
As when Solomon came first to his crown, he went to the chief city, and gathered a solemn convent [gathering]. (1 Kings 8:1) So, Christ should rather first have gone to Jerusalem the holy city and there should have been some solemn banquet. But Christ from his baptism began his calling, and fasted forty days & forty nights. This his fast (by the new writers) is called the entrance into his calling: by the old writers, it is called the entrance into his conflict.
The manner of the Church hath always been, that at the first institution, or undertaking of any great and weighty matter, there hath been extraordinary. fasting. So, Moses (Deut. 9. 9.) when he entered into his calling, at the receiving of the Law, fasted forty days. So Elijah (1 King. 19.8.) at the restoring of the same Law did the like. And so, when they went about the re-edifying of the Temple, as appeareth Esdr. 8. 49. So in the New Testament, at the separation of Paul and Barnabas,Acts 13. 3. And (as Jerome reporteth) Saint John would not undertake to write the divine work of his Gospel, until the whole Church (by fasting) had recommended the same unto God.
So likewise at the entrance into a conflict, for the obtaining of some victory, as Jehoshaphat did when he overcame the Amorites, 2 of the Chronicles chapter 20. the 3. verse. So did Esther when she went about the deliverance of the Jews, as in the fourth of Esther the sixteenth verse. And Eusebius reporteth, that when Peter was to enter disputation with Simon Magus, there was fasting of the whole Church generally.
Whether at the entrance into a calling, or to resist the Devil, Saint Peters rule mentioned in his first Chapter and fifth verse, ought to take place, we must use prayer and fasting.
And as at all times we are to use watchfulness and carefulness: so then especially, when we look that the Devil will be most busy; and the rather, for that in some cases, there is no dealing without fasting, as Mark 9.29 there is a kind of devil that will not be cast out, without prayer and fasting.
As for the number of days wherein he fasted, just forty, curiosity may find itself work enough: but it is dangerous to make conclusions, when no certainty appears.
Some say, there is a correspondence between these forty days, and the forty days wherein the World was destroyed by the Deluge: but it is better to say, As Moses fasted forty days at the institution of the law, and Elijah forty at the restoration: so Christ here. And because he came but in the shape of a servant, he would not take upon him above his fellow-servants: Contrary to our times, wherein a man is accounted nobody, except he can have a quirk above his fellows. But it is more material, to see how it concerns us. It is a thing rather to be adored by admiration, than to be followed by apish imitation.
This fast here was not the fast of a day, as that of Peter, and of Cornelius, Acts 10. 9, 30. but such as Luke 4. 2. describes, he did eat nothing all that time. Saint John the Baptist (though his life were very strict) did eat locusts and wild honey, Matt. 3. 4. Ours is not properly a fast, but a provocation of meats; and therefore, there can be no proportion between them: but as it is, what is to be thought of it?
Socrates and Irenaeus record, that at the first, the Church did use to celebrate but one day in remembrance of Christ’s Fast; till after, the Montanists (a certain sect of heretics, who thereupon were called Eucratitae) raised it to fourteen days; the zeal of the clergy after increased it to forty, after to fifty, the monks brought it to sixty the friars to seventy; and if the Pope had not there stayed it, they would have brought it to eighty, and so have doubled Christ’s fast.
When the Primitive Church saw the heretics (by this outward show) go about to disgrace the Christians, by this counterfeit shew of holiness; they used it also: but (saith Augustine and Chrysostom) they held it only a positive law, which was in the church to use or take away, & not as any exercise of godliness.
Only a doubt rests [remains] now, because of the hardness of men’s hearts, whether it were better left or kept. Some would have abstinence used, and one day kept for the Sabbath, but left to every man’s liberty what time & day, & tied to no certainty: but that were (upon the matter) to have none kept at all.
Notwithstanding, the reformed Churches (as that of France) have used their liberty in removing of it, for that they saw an inclination in their people to superstition, who would think themselves holier for such fasting; like the Pharisee in Luke 18. 12. The Church wherein we live, uses her liberty in retaining it, and that upon good reasons: for since God has created the fishes of the sea for man, and given him an interest in them also, Gen. 9. 2. as well as in the beasts. Since the death of fish was a plague wherewith God plagued Pharaoh, and so contrariwise the increase of fish is a blessing: God will have fish to be used, so that he may have praises as well for the sea as for the land. Psalm 104. 25.
If we look into the civil reason, we shall see great cause to observe it. See, Num. 11. 22, the abundance of flesh that was consumed in one month. The maintenance of store then is of great importance, and therefore order must be taken accordingly. Jerusalem had fish days, that Tyre and such like, living upon navigation, might have utterance for their commodities, Neh. 13. 16. (for Tyre was the maritime city, till after Alexander annexed to it another city, and made it dry.)
The Tribe of Zebulon lived by navigation, Gen. 49. 13 which is a thing necessary both for wealth, 2 Chron. 9. 20 which made Solomon richer than any other king, and also for munition. As Isaiah23. 4 that I read therefore had need of maintenance. And therefore, our Church and Commonwealth have taken order accordingly; and the rather, for that our times require it: (for the times that forbad marriage and the abstinence of meats, 1. Tim. 4 3. are past) we rather live in the age of self-love, intemperance, and filthy pleasure, 2. Tim. 3. 4. There is more fear of a pottinger [one who makes soup, or a pot] full of gluttony, than of a spoonful of superstition. This is no fast, but a change of meat.
Christ entered into his public ministry with 40 days of prayer and fasting, which was followed by the Temptation. What are we to make of this 40 day period? The first question he answers concerns why forty days? He answers by saying this matches Moses 40 days on the mountain with God. Christ is replicating and replacing the work of Moses. The 40 days of fasting are a place where the two events are paralleled.
The second question, which takes up remainder of this section concerns whether we should imitate this fast. He begins by giving a brief history of the church’s response, where one group then another sought to imitate this fast. After a while, the fast was actually longer than Christ’s fast. But since 70 day fast would be humanly impossible, the fast is actually such a limitation on what you eat for a period of time: fish rather than meat.
After a few paragraphs on the ocean and fish, which I must admit I found perplexing as an intrusion into his overall thesis, he concludes that those who insist on the fast with all its rules and limitations more likely to fall into superstition over the use of a fast. The only thing which as really been done is there has been a temporary change in diet, but no gain in holiness or spiritual vigor.
The question about the Lenten fast has been raised again recently by many Protestants. What can Andrews’ discussion here do to help us think about such things? The fast itself is not a matter of necessary holiness. He notes that as far back as Augustine and Chrysostom hold the fast to be a matter of church dictate, a custom effectively, but not a matter of true holiness or sin. To fast or not fast is not the same as committing murder or adultery.
Second, this fast is not an absolute fast but a change in diet.
Third, such a fast is easily tends to superstition. People who insist on such a fast are more concerned with avoiding gluttony than superstition.
 Christ is understood to fulfill three separate “offices” or types of work, “Observe, these titles are given to Christ with respect to his three offices of king, priest, and prophet.” Thomas Manton, The Complete Works of Thomas Manton, vol. 19 (London: James Nisbet & Co., 1874), 81.
 The “world” is a reference to normal course of events, or the general system of common life.
 While we use the word “preface” to only refer to an introduction to a book, Andrews is here using the world to reference an introduction in general.
 If Christ were following in the same pattern, he would have gone to Jerusalem and made a public announcement of his work. But he did nothing of the sort.
 Christ’s baptism marked his entrance into public ministry.
 Older commentators referred to the fast and temptation as Christ’s entrance into his conflict. It is more common now, to refer to this time as his entrance into his public ministry, his “calling.”
 By Church, he means the people of God. Therefore, Old Testament examples are taken as instances of the “church.”
 Deuteronomy 9:9 (ESV) “When I went up the mountain to receive the tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant that the LORD made with you, I remained on the mountain forty days and forty nights. I neither ate bread nor drank water.” When Moses was on the mountain receiving the tablets, he was there 40 days and fasted during that time.
 Elijah challenged the King of Israel over his worship of Baal. Whichever God can make fire come from heaven and burn a sacrifice is the real God. Baal, obviously, was unable to produce fire. God brought fire down and the people turned from Baal. Elijah went out into the wilderness in depression and wanted to die. Angel ministered to Elijah and he ate. That was Elijah’s meal for 40 days he traveled to “Horeb, the mount of God.” (1 Kings 19:8)
 The correct reference seems to be 8:50, “And there I vowed a fast unto the young men before our Lord, to desire of him a prosperous journey both for us and them that were with us, for our children, and for the cattle.”
 Acts 13:3 (ESV) “Then after fasting and praying they laid their hands on them and sent them off.”
6 Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God so that at the proper time he may exalt you, 7 casting all your anxieties on him, because he cares for you. 8 Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. 9 Resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same kinds of suffering are being experienced by your brotherhood throughout the world.
 “When Jesus saw that the people came running together, he rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him. And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of him: and he was as one dead; insomuch that many said, He is dead. But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted him up; and he arose. And when he was come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, Why could not we cast him out? And he said unto them, This kind can come forth by nothing, but by prayer and fasting.” (Mark 9:25–29, AV) Most modern translation understand “and fasting” to be a late addition to the text.
 If you wish to know why it was “forty days,” you can certainly find some answers to your speculation. But as a general matter, such speculation is dangerous. You should only take up such questions if there is a good answer to be had.
 Noah’s flood: the rain lasted 40 days. Gen. 7:17.
 “Quirk” has a negative connotation generally at present. Andrews is using to mean something distinctive. He is better than other people, in some unique way.
 A fast where someone avoids a particular food. “Meat” means more than just animal flesh.
 An early church historian. Born approximately 379 A.D.
 Bishop of Lyon, A.D. 120-202. Best known for his critique of Gnosticism, Against Heresies.
 The determination was made that the rule concerning this fast was merely a church custom and practice. The church could determine a longer or shorter fast. The length of the fast was not a matter of sin or holiness.
 The idea here is that performing the action functions as a sort of magic: by performance of the action, there is a guaranteed result. Thus, performing the fast will have come automatic effect upon God, and thus upon the one fasting.
 “He also told this parable to some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and treated others with contempt: “Two men went up into the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector. The Pharisee, standing by himself, prayed thus: ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. I fast twice a week; I give tithes of all that I get.’ But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, ‘God, be merciful to me, a sinner!’ I tell you, this man went down to his house justified, rather than the other. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but the one who humbles himself will be exalted.”” (Luke 18:9–14, ESV)
 The fast here is not an absolute refraining from all food and water, but rather a limitation on one’s diet to exclude meat in favor of fish.
 We are allowed to eat animals, including fish. “The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth and upon every bird of the heavens, upon everything that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea. Into your hand they are delivered.” (Genesis 9:2, ESV)
 The plague upon the Nile killed the fish. “Moses and Aaron did as the Lord commanded. In the sight of Pharaoh and in the sight of his servants he lifted up the staff and struck the water in the Nile, and all the water in the Nile turned into blood. And the fish in the Nile died, and the Nile stank, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.” (Exodus 7:20–21, ESV)
 “Here is the sea, great and wide, which teems with creatures innumerable, living things both small and great.” (Psalm 104:25, ESV)
 “Shall flocks and herds be slaughtered for them, and be enough for them? Or shall all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them, and be enough for them?”” (Numbers 11:22, ESV) The context is Moses asking how he could conceivably feed the people of Israel in the wilderness.
 One of the longest continually inhabited cities in the world; located in Lebanon.
 “Tyrians also, who lived in the city, brought in fish and all kinds of goods and sold them on the Sabbath to the people of Judah, in Jerusalem itself!” (Nehemiah 13:16, ESV)
 ““Zebulun shall dwell at the shore of the sea; he shall become a haven for ships, and his border shall be at Sidon.” (Genesis 49:13, ESV)
 “All King Solomon’s drinking vessels were of gold, and all the vessels of the House of the Forest of Lebanon were of pure gold. Silver was not considered as anything in the days of Solomon.” (2 Chronicles 9:20, ESV)
 An obsolete use of this word means “right” or “privilege”; thus, some sort of advantage.
 This is quite an odd use of this verse, “Be ashamed, O Sidon, for the sea has spoken, the stronghold of the sea, saying: “I have neither labored nor given birth, I have neither reared young men nor brought up young women.” (Isaiah 23:4, ESV) Calvin, explains this verse, “Thus, Isaiah represents Tyre as bewailing her ancient glory, because she has ceased to be a mother, and because it is of no avail to her that she has brought forth so many children, and founded so many cities; for at an early period Carthage sent regularly every year a present to Tyre, for the purpose of doing homage to her as the mother. In this manner Tyre appeared to hold a higher rank than all other cities, since even Carthage, though a rival of the Roman empire, was in some respect subject to Tyre: but the Lord stripped her of all her ornaments in a moment, so that she bewailed her bereavement, as if she had never brought up any children.” John Calvin, Isaiah, electronic ed., Calvin’s Commentaries (Albany, OR: Ages Software, 1998), Is 23:4.
A more recent commentator explains, “4 Yam … the Mighty One of the Sea has been handled in many different ways. Typically, it has been translated in some way similar to RSV, “The sea … the stronghold of the sea,” with commentators frequently striking out one or even both phrases as a gloss.25 Some assume Tyre is speaking, while others assume the sea is the speaker. The present interpretation rests upon the recognition that the initial occurrence of yam has no article, suggesting that the term is being used as a proper noun, namely, the Canaanite god of the sea. And although māʿôz does mean “refuge” elsewhere in the OT, the root ʿzz means “to be strong,” and a noun form meaning “mighty one” is entirely possible.26 If this interpretation is correct, then Sidon, who has been dependent upon Tyre,27 is told that his trust is misplaced because Yam, Tyre’s father, is lamenting his loss, declaring that he is now bereft of children. The cry is that of parents, but especially mothers, whose children precede them in death. All the anguish of birth, all the struggle of raising the child, seems to have been in vain.” John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 1–39, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1986), 430–431.
 In these sorts of fasts, the concern is merely that one will eat too much; and there is no concern that this over concern on eating or not eating will have a harmful effect on the soul (superstition) than on the body (gluttony). That is, they would rather avoid gluttony than avoid superstition. In doing this, they really are not fasting for their spiritual benefit; they are simply changing their diet.
The sixth is the place, the lists, to wit [that is], the wilderness,
that so he might be alone, and that there might be no fellow-worker with him in the matter of our salvation,
that he alone might have the treading of the wine-press, Isaiah 63.3.
So, in his transfiguration in the mount, he was found alone, Luke 9. 36.
So, in the garden in his great agony, he was in effect alone; for his Disciples slept all the while, Mat. 26. 40 that unto him might be ascribed all the praise.
Secondly, we will note here, that there is no place privileged from temptations, as there be some that think there be certain places to be exempt from God’s presence, (as was noted in the dream of Jacob) so the monks and hermits thought, that by avoiding company, they should be free from temptations; which is not so. For, although Christ were alone in the wilderness, and fasting too, yet was he tempted we see.
And yet it is true, that he that will live well, must shun the company of the wicked, Gen. 19. 17 when the Angels had brought Lot & his family out of the doors, they charged him not to tarry, nor to stand still, nor once to look back.
So, after the cock had crowed, and put Peter in mind of his fall; he went out of the doors and wept bitterly, Matt. 26. 75 his solitariness was a cause to make his repentance the more earnest, and helped to increase his tears: and company is commonly a hindrance to the receiving of any good grace, and to the exercising and confirming us in any good purpose.
But as true it is, that temptations are, and may as well be in the deserts, as in public places: not only in the valleys, but in the mountains, verse 8. and not only in the country, but even in the Holy City [Jerusalem], vers. 5 yea, and sometimes full, and sometimes fasting, yea, in paradise and in heaven itself; for thither does the devil come and accuse us before God: we are therefore always to stand upon our guard.
For in the second chap. of Luke verse. 24. He is said to walk through dry places, least happily some might be escaped from him thither: and though we could go whether he could not come, we should not be free: for wee carry ever a tempter about with us. And when we pray to be delivered from temptation, it is not only from the devil, but from ourselves, we carry fire within us. Nazianzen and Basil were of that mind once, that by change of the place a man might go from temptation: but afterward they recanted it, affirming that it was impossible to avoid temptation, yea, though he went out of the world, except he left his heart behind him also.
This section concerns the location of the temptation: the wilderness. There are a number conclusions which have been drawn from this over the centuries. For instance, Adam fell to Satan in the Garden; Jesus refused temptation in the wilderness.
Andrews considers the fact Christ was alone. He then gives three other instances of Christ alone. Christ will be alone when treading out the judgment (Is. 63:3).
Christ was alone after the transfiguration. This reference is a bit more complicated. The passage a whole reads:
Luke 9:28–36 (ESV)
28 Now about eight days after these sayings he took with him Peter and John and James and went up on the mountain to pray. 29 And as he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became dazzling white. 30 And behold, two men were talking with him, Moses and Elijah, 31 who appeared in glory and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 32 Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, but when they became fully awake they saw his glory and the two men who stood with him. 33 And as the men were parting from him, Peter said to Jesus, “Master, it is good that we are here. Let us make three tents, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah”—not knowing what he said. 34 As he was saying these things, a cloud came and overshadowed them, and they were afraid as they entered the cloud. 35 And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, my Chosen One; listen to him!” 36 And when the voice had spoken, Jesus was found alone. And they kept silent and told no one in those days anything of what they had seen.
Christ is alone after the transfiguration, in that Elijah and Moses are now gone. But Jesus was still with Peter, James, and John. The reason for this reference by Andrews must be in v. 31: They were discussing Jesus’ “departure” – his “exodus” [that is the Greek word]. The exodus of Jesus was going to be his Passion. Thus, the alone here foreshadows the next alone mentioned is Christ alone in the Garden before he is arrested.
What this means is that at critical moments in his life, Christ’s work was done by Christ alone.
Andrews then draws an application for us. We may think that we can escape temptation merely by changing our address. I heard this referred as to “doing a geographical.” If lived in a different city, I would no longer do this or that. There was a belief in the church after Constantine that one could avoid sin merely by living in the desert away from all human beings.
Such a thing is not true. We can be tempted anywhere. Jesus was tempted in the desert.
But there is a greater trouble. We take ourselves wherever we go. Temptation is not something exterior to us; temptation arises from within us: “13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am being tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted with evil, and he himself tempts no one. 14 But each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire. 15 Then desire when it has conceived gives birth to sin, and sin when it is fully grown brings forth death.”
James 1:13–15 (ESV)
 There were men and women in the early church who lived by themselves in the desert (or other secluded place) under the belief that by being away from other human beings, they would be safe from temptation. “In general, the hermit life confounds the fleeing from the outward world with the mortification of the inward world of the corrupt heart. It mistakes the duty of love; not rarely, under its mask of humility and the utmost self-denial, cherishes spiritual pride and jealousy; and exposes itself to all the dangers of solitude, even to savage barbarism, beastly grossness, or despair and suicide.” Philip Schaff and David Schley Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. 3 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910), 169.
 The example of Christ disproves the thesis that one can avoid temptation by being in the wilderness.
 Before God destroyed Sodom, God sent angels to warn Lot and his family to flee. The angels told them to run and to not look back. Lot’s wife did, and was turned to salt.
 Even though we cannot avoid temptation by fleeing to the desert, we should not conclude that it is perfectly fine to keep wicked company.
 We will be tempted whether we are full or famished.
 In Job 1 & 2, the accuser, the “Satan,” is in heaven to accuse Job of hypocrisy.
 Our tempter is always with us, because we are our own tempter.
 One of the three Cappadocian Fathers, born 330.
 One of the three Cappadocian Fathers, born 329. Known as “Basil the Great.”
 We cannot avoid temptation in this life, because temptation will always be with us. As for the reference at the end that we cannot avoid temptation unless we leave our “heart behind”: that is reference to Jesus’s statement that temptation comes our heart: “20 And he said, ‘What comes out of a person is what defiles him. 21 For from within, out of the heart of man, come evil thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, 22 coveting, wickedness, deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride, foolishness. 23 All these evil things come from within, and they defile a person.’” Mark 7:20–23 (ESV)
The fourth point is the end, that is, the conflict, as it concerns Christ, insomuch that he was led to be tempted. In which temptation Augustine saith, Habemus & quod credentes veneremur, & quod videntes imitamur: [That which we have and which we believe we adore; that which we see, we practice] There be two things for faith to adore, and two things for imitation to practice.
First for faith, that the temptations of Christ, have sanctified temptations unto us: that whereas before they were curses, like unto hanging on a tree; now, since Christ hath been both tempted and hanged on a tree, they be no longer signs and pledges of God’s wrath, but favors. A man may be the child of GOD notwithstanding, and therefore he is not to receive a discouragement by any of them.
Secondly, besides the sanctifying, it is an abatement, so that now when we are tempted, they have not the force they had before: for now, the serpent’s head is bruised, so that he is now nothing so strong (as he was) to cast his darts. Also, the head of his darts are blunted, 1. Cor. 15. 55 Death, where is thy sting? Hell, where is thy victory?
For as his death and resurrection had a mortifying force against the old man, and a quickening force toward the new man: so hath his temptation a dulling force to the Devil and a strengthening force to us.
For our life and imitation, there are also two.
First, Compassion: for Christ knowing in what sort we were tempted, as having felt by experience, both how strong the assaulting was, Psa. 118. 13, who thrust sore at him that he might fall; & how feeble our nature is to make resistance, be nothing but dust, Psalm. 103. 14 he is moved thereby to lay away severity, and to put on the bowels of compassion. So that Now we have not a high Priest which cannot be tempted with our infirmities, but was tempted in like sort, Heb. 4. 15. So we, (which were before stony judges, and too rough [difficult] for physicians) ought in like sort (having been tempted ourselves) to look upon others defects with a more passionate regard.
The second thing we are to imitate, Christ is our fellow-helper in all our necessities and temptations; who, as he shows us his [the Devil’s] sleights and darts, Eph. 4. 14 so he teaches us how to avoid them. This is no small comfort to us, when we consider that he [Christ] is with us, and will be till the end of the world, Matt. 28. 20 who hath overcome the world, John 16. 33 and the devil: If any temptation happen, that he will bear us out, we may be of good cheer. This was it that did so animate Job, Do thou but take my part, and who shall touch me? Job 17. 3. When as both Christ and we draw together in one yoke, Matt. 11. 29 what can hurt us?
Yet if we be afraid for that we see the enemy coming; let us call for the help of our assistant, and as it is said in Psal. 68. 1 we shall see God will arise, and his enemies shall be scattered: they shall vanish like smoke, and melt like way. When they are ready to attach us, let us say, Save me O God, for the waters are entered even into my soul. Psalm 69. 1. When we are feeble, then let us say with Ezekiel, O Lord it hath oppressed me, comfort me, Ezek. 38. 14. Or though they have wounded us, let vs say with David, Bring out thy spear, and stop the way against them that persecute me. Psalm. 35. 3. Say yet to my soul, I am thy salvation. So that we have not only an example, but a comfort too.
What can we take away from a knowledge that Christ was tempted? First, he proposes two points for us to “adore”: (1) We need not look upon a trial or temptation as proof of God’s displeasure or even our sin. Christ was tempted by the Devil himself, and he was brought to the temptation by the Holy Spirit. Since that is true, we can conclude, reasoning from the greater to the lesser, and reasoning from the fact that Christ is our Savior and representative, we can conclude that trials and temptations have a different purpose for us than punishment or God’s displeasure.
(2) The fact of Christ’s work has limited the power of temptation. This happens in two ways. (a) There has been a subjective transformation of us. We are different because our “old man” has been put to death with Christ:
5 For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. 6 We know that our old self was crucified with him in order that the body of sin might be brought to nothing, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin. 7 For one who has died has been set free from sin.
Romans 6:5–7 (ESV). (b) The Devil himself has suffered a mortal wound by the life, death, and resurrection of Christ:
Whoever makes a practice of sinning is of the devil, for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil.
1 John 3:8 (ESV).
Second, there are two things for us to do. (1) Look upon others with compassion when we see them in their weakness and distress. Here is the argument: (a) Christ is compassionate to those who are tempted. (b) We are to imitate Christ. (c) Therefore, we are to be compassionate to those in temptation.
The first premise of this argument comes from two passages in Hebrews:
14 Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same things, that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, 15 and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong slavery. 16 For surely it is not angels that he helps, but he helps the offspring of Abraham. 17 Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. 18 For because he himself has suffered when tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted.
Hebrews 2:14–18 (ESV). And:
14 Since then we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. 15 For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin. 16 Let us then with confidence draw near to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.
Hebrews 4:14–16 (ESV). This compassion of Christ is grounded in his knowledge of our weakness, being but dust.
The second premise can be found through-out the NT:
21 For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps.
1 Peter 2:21 (ESV)
The conclusion follows from the first two premises.
(2) We also are given an example of who to navigate and pass beyond trials and temptations of this world, because we have the example of Christ. We also know that Christ has not merely left us an example to follow; but he also will walk through the trials with us. And in that we can have good courage.
 By faith, Andrews means that this knowledge is an encouragement to and a strengthening of our faith. We have greater understanding and thus greater hope.
 By “sanctified,” Andrews means that Christ having undergone temptation in human flesh has now transformed the nature of temptation which suffered by those who believe in and are united to Christ.
 Galatians 3:10–13 (ESV) “10 For all who rely on works of the law are under a curse; for it is written, “Cursed be everyone who does not abide by all things written in the Book of the Law, and do them.” 11 Now it is evident that no one is justified before God by the law, for “The righteous shall live by faith.” 12 But the law is not of faith, rather “The one who does them shall live by them.” 13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us—for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who is hanged on a tree”—” Paul is quoting Deuteronomy 21:22–23 (ESV) 22 “And if a man has committed a crime punishable by death and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree, 23 his body shall not remain all night on the tree, but you shall bury him the same day, for a hanged man is cursed by God. You shall not defile your land that the Lord your God is giving you for an inheritance.” This an interesting curse, because (1) the curse is not based upon the conduct of the man condemned; it is passive; and (2) the curse defiles the land. This is the reason that the Jews requested Pilate to not allow the bodies to stay on the cross overnight. John 19:31
 To be tempted, does not mean that God is displeased with us. Therefore, we need not be discouraged if we are tempted.
 The power of sin is limited due to Christ having gone through temptation.
 Andrews argues here that we are better able to withstand temptation, because Satan is no longer as strong as before Christ conquered him on the cross. Colossians 2:15 (ESV) “He disarmed the rulers and authorities and put them to open shame, by triumphing over them in him.” The bruising of the Serpent’s head is a reference to Genesis 3:14–15 (ESV)
14 The Lord God said to the serpent,
“Because you have done this,
cursed are you above all livestock
and above all beasts of the field;
on your belly you shall go,
and dust you shall eat
all the days of your life.
15 I will put enmity between you and the woman,
and between your offspring and her offspring;
he shall bruise your head,
and you shall bruise his heel.”
“To cast his dart”: this is a reference to Ephesians 6:16 (ESV) “In all circumstances take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming darts of the evil one.”
 The 15th chapter of 1 Corinthians concerns the doctrine of the resurrection, moving from Jesus’ resurrection to the resurrection of those found in him. If death has been conquered by the Resurrection, then it’s sting has been removed.
1 Corinthians 15:51–55 (ESV)
51 Behold! I tell you a mystery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, 52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed. 53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 54 When the perishable puts on the imperishable, and the mortal puts on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written:
“Death is swallowed up in victory.”
55 “O death, where is your victory?
O death, where is your sting?”
 Puts to death our life prior to the knowledge of God. Calvin comments:
That our old man, etc. The old man, as the Old Testament is so called with reference to the New; for he begins to be old, when he is by degrees destroyed by a commencing regeneration. But what he means is the whole nature which we bring from the womb, and which is so in capable of the kingdom of God, that it must so far die as we are renewed to real life. This old man, he says, is fastened to the cross of Christ, for by its power he is slain: and he expressly referred to the cross, that he might more distinctly show, that we cannot be otherwise put to death than by partaking of his death. For I do not agree with those who think that he used the word crucified, rather than dead, because he still lives, and is in some respects vigorous. It is indeed a correct sentiment, but not suitable to this passage. The body of sin, which he afterwards mentions, does not mean flesh and bones, but the corrupted mass; for man, left to his own nature, is a mass made up of sin.
 Romans 6:5–11 (ESV) “5 For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. 6 We know that our old self was crucified with him in order that the body of sin might be brought to nothing, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin. 7 For one who has died has been set free from sin. 8 Now if we have died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. 9 We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. 10 For the death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. 11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.”
so the Lord shows compassion to those who fear him.
14 For he knows our frame;
he remembers that we are dust.
 Since Christ knows how week we are, being but dust, he takes away the strength of temptation and turns to us with compassion.
 Compassion being associated with our guts, our insides. We would more likely make a reference to the “heart,” although we do speak about a “gut instinct” or “gut hunch”.
 If Christ can be compassionate with us, when we he sees our weakness in temptation; so, also, we should be far more compassionate with the weakness of others.
 Ephesians 4:14 (ESV) “so that we may no longer be children, tossed to and fro by the waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by human cunning, by craftiness in deceitful schemes.”
 Matthew 28:18–20 (ESV) “And Jesus came and said to them, ‘All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.’”
 John 16:25–33 (ESV) ‘’I have said these things to you in figures of speech. The hour is coming when I will no longer speak to you in figures of speech but will tell you plainly about the Father. 26 In that day you will ask in my name, and I do not say to you that I will ask the Father on your behalf; 27 for the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me and have believed that I came from God. 28 I came from the Father and have come into the world, and now I am leaving the world and going to the Father.’
“29 His disciples said, ‘Ah, now you are speaking plainly and not using figurative speech! 30 Now we know that you know all things and do not need anyone to question you; this is why we believe that you came from God.’ 31 Jesus answered them, ‘Do you now believe? 32 Behold, the hour is coming, indeed it has come, when you will be scattered, each to his own home, and will leave me alone. Yet I am not alone, for the Father is with me. 33 I have said these things to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have overcome the world.’”
 If we suffer a temptation, but know that while we are in the trial/temptation Christ is with us and will sustain through the temptation, we can bear it with a good spirit.
 Matthew 11:25–30 (ESV) “At that time Jesus declared, ‘I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding and revealed them to little children; 26 yes, Father, for such was your gracious will. 27 All things have been handed over to me by my Father, and no one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and anyone to whom the Son chooses to reveal him. 28 Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. 30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.’”
Thirdly, we are to consider the leader, He was led by the Spirit. In which we are to note five things: not making any question, but that it was the good Spirit, for so it appears in Luke. 4. 1.
First, that the state of a man regenerate by baptism, is not a standing still, Matt. 20. 6. He found others standing idle in the marketplace, and he said to them, Why stand ye idle all day? We must not only have a mortifying and reviving, but a quickening and stirring spirit. 1. Cor. 15. 45 which will move us, and cause us to proceed: we must not lie still like lumps of flesh, laying all upon Christs shoulders, Phil. 3. 16 we must walk forwards, for the kingdom of God consists not in words, but in power, 1. Cor. 4. 19.
Secondly, as there must be a stirring, so this stirring must not be such, as when a man is left to his own voluntary or natural motion: we must go according as we are lead. For having given ourselves to God, we are no longer to be at our own disposition or direction: whereas before our calling, we were Gentiles, and were carried into errors, 1. Cor. 12. 2 we wandered up & down as masterless or careless, or else gave heed to the doctrine of devils, 1. Tim. 4.1 or else led with divers [various] lusts, 2. Tim. 3. 6. But now being become the children of God, we must be led by the Spirit of God: for so many as be the sons of God, are led thereby, Rom. 8. 14. We must not be led by the Spirit, whence the Revelation came Matt. 16. 22. from whence revelations of flesh and blood do arise: but by the Spirit from whence the voice came, This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased. It came not by the Spirit that minister’s wise counsel, but by that which came down upon them.
Thirdly, the manner of leading, is described to be such a kind of leading when a ship is loosed from the shore, as Luke. chapter 8. verse. 22. it is called launching forth: so, in the eighteenth chapter of the Acts, the 31. verse, Paul is said to have sailed forth.
The Holy Ghost driving us, is compared to a gale [blowing, not storm] of wind, John 3. 8 which teaches us, that as when the wind blows, we must be ready to hoist up sail: so must we make vs ready to be led by the spirit. Our hope is compared to an anchor, Heb. 6. 19. which must be hailed up to us; and our faith to the sail, we are to bear as great a sail as we can. We must also look to the closeness of the vessel, which is our conscience: for if we have not a good conscience, we may make shipwreck of faith, religion, and all, 1. Tim., 1. 19. And thus are we to proceed in our journey towards our Country, the spiritual Jerusalem, as it were sea-faring men. Acts. 20. 22. Now behold I go bound in spirit to Jerusalem: to which journey the love of Christ must constrain vs. 2. Cor. 5. 14.
Fourthly, that he was led to be tempted. His temptation therefore came not by chance, nor as Job chap 5. vers. 6. speaks, out of the dust, or out of the earth, nor from the devil, for he had no power without leave, not only over Job’s person, Job. 1. 12. but not so much as over his goods, verse 14. He had no power of himself so much as over the hogs of the Gergashites, who were profan, Matt. 8. 31.
Hence gather we this comfort, that the Holy Ghost is not a stander by (as a stranger) [one who merely stands without responding] when we are tempted, Tanquam otiosus spectator [as if he were an idle spectator] but he leads us by the hand, and stands by as a faithful assistant, Esay chapter 4. verse. 13. He makes an issue out of [is concerned about] all our temptations, and will not suffer us to be tempted above our strength, 1. Cor. Chap. 10. vers. 13. And he turns the work of sin, and of the devil too, unto our good, Ro. 8. 28. So that all these shall make us more wary after to resist them: and hell, by fearing it, shall be an occasion unto us, to avoid that might bring vs to it: and so they shall all be fellow-helpers to our salvation.
[How might they be good?]
So that temptations, whether
 they be (as the fathers call them) rods to chasten us for sin committed,
 or to try and sift us, Mat. 3. 12. and so to take away the chaff, the fan is in the Holy Ghost’s hand:
 or whether they be sent to buffet us against the prick of the flesh, 2. Cor. 12. 7,
or whether they be as matters serving for our experience, not only for ourselves, that we may know our own strength, Rom. 5. 3. and to work patience in us:
 but to the devil also, that so his mouth may be stopped, as in Job 2. 3. Hast thou marked my servant Job, how upright he is, and that in all the world there is not such a one?
Howsoever they be, the Devil has not the rod or chain in his hands, but the Holy Ghost to order them, as may best serve for his glory and our good: and as for the devil, he binds him fast, Rev. 20. 2.
Fifthly, by the Greek word here used, is set forth the difference between the temptations of the Saints, and reprobates. In the Lord’s Prayer one petition is, Lead vs not into temptation: but there, the Word imports [carries] another manner of leading, than is here meant. We do not there pray against this manner of leading here, which is so to lead us, as to be with us, and to bring us back again, Heb. 13. 20 but we pray there, that he would not cast or drive us into temptations; and when we are there, leave vs, by withdrawing his grace and Holy Spirit, as he doth from the reprobate and forsaken.
In this section, Andrews considers the clause from Mathew 4:1, that Jesus was “led by the Spirit” into the wilderness. From this he draws a series of conclusions.
First, the Spirit which the believer receives is a Spirit which brings about change and movement. Jesus was led, but we too are put into motion.
Second, we are being led: the Spirit has now taken control: “we are no longer to be at our own disposition or direction.” Before, we were led about by our own passions. But if we now are God’s we are led by the Spirit: Romans 8:14 (ESV) “For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.”
Third, as such, we are like ships which are blown by the wind. He takes this from the analogy of the Spirit to the wind (the two words are the same in Greek) in John 3. From this he draws out the analogy to the a “shipwreck of our faith” if we defile and refuse our conscience.
Fourth, being led out to be tempted is not a whole evil, because God uses all things for God. To be tempted and tried may prove to be (1) correction for our past sin; (2) a trial which takes sin away from us (sifting us like wheat to remove the chaff and leave the grain); (3) it may be a trouble which protects us from further sin by making us humble; (4) we may be humbled by learning our limitations and dependence; (5) it may even be a rebuke to Devil, as it was in the case of Job.
 Luke 4:1 (ESV) “And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the wilderness.”
 Article 27 of the Church of England respecting baptism provides as follows: “Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark of difference, whereby Christian men are discerned from others that be not christened, but it is also a sign of Regeneration or New-Birth, whereby, as by an instrument, they that receive Baptism rightly are grafted into the Church; the promises of the forgiveness of sin, and of our adoption to be the sons of God by the Holy Ghost, are visibly signed and sealed; Faith is confirmed, and Grace increased by virtue of prayer unto God.”
 The text cited refers to a parable of Jesus; the language as cited has no direct application to Andrews’ argument. Here he is using the reference as an illustration, not as evidence.
 To be “quick” is to be alive and moving. To “quicken” is to make alive, restore life.
 1 Corinthians 15:44–46 (ESV) “44 It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 45 Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 46 But it is not the spiritual that is first but the natural, and then the spiritual.”
 Andrews’ argument in this place is better understood and supported if we look to more of the context for v. 16:
Philippians 3:14–16 (ESV) “14 I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus. 15 Let those of us who are mature think this way, and if in anything you think otherwise, God will reveal that also to you. 16 Only let us hold true to what we have attained.”
 1 Corinthians 4:19 (ESV) “But I will come to you soon, if the Lord wills, and I will find out not the talk of these arrogant people but their power.”
 1 Corinthians 12:2 (ESV) “You know that when you were pagans you were led astray to mute idols, however you were led.”
 1 Timothy 4:1 (ESV) “Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons.”
 2 Timothy 3:6 (ESV) “For among them are those who creep into households and capture weak women, burdened with sins and led astray by various passions.” Rather than “various passions,” the Geneva has “divers lustes”.
 Romans 8:14 (ESV) “For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.”
 John 3:8 (ESV) “The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear its sound, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit.”
 2 Corinthians 5:14 (ESV) “For the love of Christ controls us, because we have concluded this: that one has died for all, therefore all have died.”
In the first chapter of Job, Satan accuses Job of serving God only for receiving material rewards. He asks and receives power to cause Job injury. First, he is granted power only over such things as around Job. Second, he is granted the power to afflict Job’s body – but not kill him. Andrews also alludes to:
Job 5:6–7 (ESV)
6 For affliction does not come from the dust,
nor does trouble sprout from the ground,
7 but man is born to trouble
as the sparks fly upward.
 After Jesus casts out the Legion of demons from the man, the demons go into a nearby herd of hogs. Matthew 8:31 (ESV) “And the demons begged him, saying, ‘If you cast us out, send us away into the herd of pigs.’”
 1 Corinthians 10:13 (ESV) “No temptation has overtaken you that is not common to man. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tempted beyond your ability, but with the temptation he will also provide the way of escape, that you may be able to endure it.”
 Romans 8:28–29 (ESV) “28 And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose. 29 For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.”
 2 Corinthians 12:7–10 (ESV) “7 So to keep me from becoming conceited because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to harass me, to keep me from becoming conceited. 8 Three times I pleaded with the Lord about this, that it should leave me. 9 But he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” Therefore I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me. 10 For the sake of Christ, then, I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities. For when I am weak, then I am strong.”
 Revelation 20:2 (ESV) “And he seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years.”
 Hebrews 13:20 (ESV) “Now may the God of peace who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant.”