Now come we to the second point: to wit, the temptation itself: haec omnia tibi dabo, vers.9. Having prepared Christ’s minde (as he thought) by showing him that he would give him: now he comes in with a short and pithy oration; All this will I give thee. Here you see all you can wish for: without you shall no man lift up his hand or his foot in all Egypt, as Pharaoh said to Joseph, Gen. 41. 44, so as he might make all captains, & give to everyone one fields and vineyards, 1. Sam. 22. 7 that he may say to everyone what he list [he desires to]
Speakest thou to mee? Seet thou not that I have power to crucify thee, or to let thee go? John 19. 10 that his favor might raise a man so high, as Haman was exalted above all the princes, Esther 3. 1. and his disfavor, or the least word of his mouth quite overthrow him, as Haman was verse. 7. 8. by picking some small quarrel against him.
But this is not all neither: for this same garish apparel, wherein many do delight, is contained under this Haec omnia[Latin, all these]: Not only embroidered with gold, but even gold itself, and smells of the finest scent, Psalm. 45. 8. and 9. And as for the delights of the flesh, if he can see any that delight him better than other: it is no more than with David 2. Sam. 11. 4 to send for her, and have her, she was straight at his commandment.
Neither must any say, it was unlawful: no, not John Baptist, if he love his head, Mark. 6. 17. He may command what he list; if any gainsay it, he may dispatch him out of the way: for he may kill and wound whom he list [wishes to] Dan. 5. 19. he may command all men’s tongues, 2. Sam. 14. 10. that they dare not once open their mouth to speak against him. Nay, he shall have all men’s tongues & pens ready to extoll all that he doth, and say; The King is like an Angell of God, 2. Sam. 19. or that it is the voice of God, and not of man, Act. 12. 22.
Why, then to have all men’s hands, feet, bodies, faces, tongues, and pens this may be well said All, to have not only one kingdom, but all:
to have all the power & glory of those kingdoms:
here is even all the kingdom, the power, and the glory.
He comes not after a pelting [petty, insignificant] manner, he shows himself a frank chapman [a plain spoken merchant]: he says not that Godlines is great gayne, and a minde content with his lot, 1. Tim. 6. 6. and wills him to be content with food and raiment, ver. 8. He comes not with Illae, which we shall not once behold till another world come; and whether there be any such or no, may doubt. He shows him a mount that may be touched, Heb. 12. 18. hee comes with haec [Latin, these things], that is, with ready money in his hand: he not only offers, but stakes down and whereas God saith, that in the sweat of our forehead we shall eat our bread, Genes. 3. 19. the Devil requires no such thing. This is a donative, Haec omnia dabo: [Latin, these things I will give you]
What say you now? Shall Christ take it, or no?
 Latin, [I have emended the sermon text slightly to conform to the Vulgate], All these things I will give you.
 The Pharoah made Joseph his chief governor. Joseph commanded all of Egypt except for Pharoah. Therefore, no one could dispute Joseph, that is, no one could “raise his hand” against Joseph.
 King Saul, knowing that God was to take the kingdom from him, became incensed against his son-in-law David and sought to kill him. David hid from Saul. Saul accused his people of seeking to help David. Saul says, “Has David promised that he would give you vineyards if he becomes king and you help him?” The Devil says to Jesus, When you are king of the world, you will be able to give rewards to anyone you wish. You will have complete loyalty from everyone!
 This is a fascinating allusion: Pilate tells Jesus, that Pilate has complete power of life and death even over Jesus. The Devil is in effect offering that power to Jesus. This allusion puts Pilate into the position of the Devil, believing that he has the power of life and death. This makes Jesus’ response to Pilate a response also to the Devil: Actually God has that power:
5 So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Behold the man!” 6 When the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out, “Crucify him, crucify him!” Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and crucify him, for I find no guilt in him.” 7 The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to that law he ought to die because he has made himself the Son of God.” 8 When Pilate heard this statement, he was even more afraid. 9 He entered his headquarters again and said to Jesus, “Where are you from?” But Jesus gave him no answer. 10 So Pilate said to him, “You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have authority to release you and authority to crucify you?” 11 Jesus answered him, “You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above. Therefore he who delivered me over to you has the greater sin.”
12 From then on Pilate sought to release him, but the Jews cried out, “If you release this man, you are not Caesar’s friend. Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar.”
John 19:5–12 (ESV)
 Haman, the villan of the story of Esther, is introduced as the Persian King’s chief noble.
 Haman sets upon a plan to murder all the Jews in the Empire because he received a slight from one Jew. Haman prepared a gibbet from which to hang his particular enemy. Through a reversal of fortune, Haman finds himself the King’s enemy and is hanged upon his own gallows. This allusion puts the Devil in the place of Haman and of the Persian King.
 Anything which could stir the senses is included within the phrase “All these.”
 The allusion here is to the splendor of a king’s adornment:
8 your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia.
From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad;
9 daughters of kings are among your ladies of honor;
at your right hand stands the queen in gold of Ophir.
Psalm 45:8–9 (ESV)
 2 Samuel 11 begins the story of David and Bathsheba. David, alone on his roof, spies the married woman bathing. He sends for her and she becomes pregnant. Her husband, away in a battle is brought back but refuses to stay in his home while he fellow soldiers are in the field. David then gives commands that the husband die in battle.
 The John the Baptist condemned the King for wrongfully taking his brother’s wife as his own. For his condemnation, John was imprisoned and then eventually beheaded, at the request of the offended wife through her daughter. In the temptation of the Devil, condemnation of sin will also be hid away. Hiding the cost or extent of sin is a key deceit of the Devil. Thomas Brooks writes that the Devil brings so to sin:
Device (3). By extenuating and lessening of sin. Ah! saith Satan, it is but a little pride, a little worldliness, a little uncleanness, a little drunkenness, &c. As Lot said of Zoar, ‘It is but a little one, and my soul shall live’ Gen. 19:20. Alas!1 saith Satan, it is but a very little sin that you stick so at. You may commit it without any danger to your soul. It is but a little one; you may commit it, and yet your soul shall live.
Thomas Brooks, The Complete Works of Thomas Brooks, ed. Alexander Balloch Grosart, vol. 1 (Edinburgh; London; Dublin: James Nichol; James Nisbet and Co.; G. Herbert, 1866), 19.
 The Devil says, that if anyone will try to stop you in your course of sin, I will simply kill him for you.
 The reference in Daniel is to God granting to a king the power of life and death. Incidentally, this does not mean that the King’s use of that power is wise or good. God grants all breath and life. But that does not mean that all use their breath and life to glory God and to love their neighbor.
 This is yet another example of a king’s power. In this instance, David pledges to protect the life of a woman who has come to speak to him.
 The references are to people speaking to or about the king. The purpose here is that the temptation of the Devil is a temptation to this degree of unfettered power. No one will stop you in pursuing your desires. Their life will be in your hand.
 The Devil is frankly selling discontentment. He does not encourage us to be content with what we have, but to desire what we do not have. But Paul counsels differently:
1 Timothy 6:3–8 (ESV)
3 If anyone teaches a different doctrine and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching that accords with godliness, 4 he is puffed up with conceit and understands nothing. He has an unhealthy craving for controversy and for quarrels about words, which produce envy, dissension, slander, evil suspicions, 5 and constant friction among people who are depraved in mind and deprived of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain. 6 But godliness with contentment is great gain, 7 for we brought nothing into the world, and we cannot take anything out of the world. 8 But if we have food and clothing, with these we will be content.
 This is an ironic reference to the Mt. Sinai which God forbad the Israelites to approach or touch. But rather than the mountain of God which is holy and may not be approached, the Devil goes to a mountain of this world and invites us to come there too.
 The Devil is ready to deal and has something to offer. There is no delayed gratification with the Devil.
 As a consequence for the Fall, God has made our work a drudgery. The world produces weeds without effort; but our food will require our hard labor.
Thirdly, he sets before his eyes al the kingdoms of the earth. There is nothing so soon enticed & led away as the eye: it is the broker between the heart & all wicked lusts that be in the world. And therefore, it was great folly in Hezekiah, to shew his robes and treasure, Isaiah 39. 2. as he was told by the prophet: it stirred vp such coals of desire in them that saw them, as could not be quenched, till they had fetched away all that he had, and all that his ancestors had laid up even till that day.
It is the wisdom that is used nowadays, when men would have one thing for another, to show the thing they would so exchange: as the buyer shows his money, and the seller his wares in the best manner that he can, each to entice the other (by the eye) to the desire of the heart.
It is the Devil’s ancient sleight, he would not go about to persuade the matter in words, till he might withal present the thing to the eye.
So, he dealt with Eve, Gen. 3. 6. First he shewed her how pleasant the fruit was, and the woman saw it. So, the cause of the deluge was, Gen. 6. 2. that the sons of God saw the beauty of the daughters of men. Ahab’s seeing of Naboth’s vineyard, 1. Kin. 21. 2. for that it lay near his house, was the cause of all the mischief that followed. This same foolish vanity of apparel, (whereof I have given so often warning out of this place,) comes from hence. I saw a fine Babilonish garment, and desiring it, I tooke it, saith Achan, Joshua 7. 21. So the seeing of the bribe, blinds the eyes of the judge, Deut. 16. 19. So still the sight of the eye, allures the heart to desire.
The Heathen man therefore wished, that virtue and honesty might as well be seen with bodily eyes: for then he thinketh, that Admirabiles amores excitarent sui. So, if we could as well see that which God hath for us, as that the Devil here offers us: we would not regard the Devil’s largesse. Moses and the other Patriarchs saw him which is invisible, which had provided a better thing for them: therefore he refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, Heb. 11. 27. and to enjoy the pleasure of sin.
But you are not so to take it, as though it were a thing simply ill to behold such things, or to look on a cupboard of plate, or to stand on a pinnacle, it is dangerous, but no sin; especially, it is unfit for an unstayed & an ungoverned eye. Therefore Lot & his wife were forbidden to look back at the destruction of Sodom, Gen. 19. 17. To Abraham it was left at large, without any restraint: for that he was a man of better ruled affections.
For as there must be one without, to take view and to entice: so, must there be one within, to hearken to it & to condescended. Be sure of that within, that it be upright: and then you may the better look with that which is without. But ever be wary, for the tinder of thy nature will soon take fire.
Job said chap. 31. ver. 1. he made a covenant with his eyes: Why then should he think on a maid, and that he had not been deceived with a woman, vers. 9. and that his hart had not walked after his eye? ver. 7. Paul knew how to use want, and how to use abundance or plenty, and how poverty: both to be full, and to be hungry: he had stayed affections, Phil. 4. 12.
We human beings are not moved by thoughts but by desire. Imagine Spock, the man of perfect logic and no emotion. How would such a man ever actually act? I could see one thing might be “better” than another, but why move?
Or consider the matter differently: what decisions have you made without any emotion, any desire, any affection? How acts without caring about the outcome? Who puts forth effort without desiring to obtain some-thing?
This is how the Devil proceeds with us. He does not merely tell us that some sin may be had. He shows it. We hear it. We see it. Consider this discussion of temptation in Proverbs 7
Proverbs 7:11–18 (ESV)
11 She is loud and wayward;
her feet do not stay at home;
12 now in the street, now in the market,
and at every corner she lies in wait.
13 She seizes him and kisses him, [touch, taste]
and with bold face she says to him, [sound]
14 “I had to offer sacrifices,
and today I have paid my vows;
15 so now I have come out to meet you,
to seek you eagerly, and I have found you. [desire]
16 I have spread my couch with coverings,
colored linens from Egyptian linen; [sight]
17 I have perfumed my bed with myrrh,
aloes, and cinnamon. [smell]
18 Come, let us take our fill of love till morning;
let us delight ourselves with love. [she then presents the temptation]
We must give attention to the temptation:
Proverbs 23:31 (ESV)
31 Do not look at wine when it is red,
when it sparkles in the cup
and goes down smoothly.
The temptation requires not merely the offer, but it also requires the potential desire to respond. He pictures this as a match and tinder. We can avoid temptation by avoiding the match. But we must also protect our heart from being so flammable:
Proverbs 4 gives us that advice. Consider this as it applies to avoiding the occasion of temptation and the keeping of our heart; both must be in place for us to be safe (because we will not be perfectly avoid all occasions of temptation):
Proverbs 4:20–27 (ESV)
20 My son, be attentive to my words;
incline your ear to my sayings.
21 Let them not escape from your sight;
keep them within your heart.
22 For they are life to those who find them,
and healing to all their flesh.
23 Keep your heart with all vigilance,
for from it flow the springs of life.
24 Put away from you crooked speech,
and put devious talk far from you.
25 Let your eyes look directly forward,
and your gaze be straight before you.
26 Ponder the path of your feet;
then all your ways will be sure.
27 Do not swerve to the right or to the left;
turn your foot away from evil.
 The King Hezekiah received a visitation from the envoys from Babylon. He showed them all the wealth which had been accumulated in Jerusalem. They saw that wealth and soon returned to take for Bablyon:
Isaiah 39:1–8 (ESV)
At that time Merodach-baladan the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent envoys with letters and a present to Hezekiah, for he heard that he had been sick and had recovered. 2 And Hezekiah welcomed them gladly. And he showed them his treasure house, the silver, the gold, the spices, the precious oil, his whole armory, all that was found in his storehouses. There was nothing in his house or in all his realm that Hezekiah did not show them. 3 Then Isaiah the prophet came to King Hezekiah, and said to him, “What did these men say? And from where did they come to you?” Hezekiah said, “They have come to me from a far country, from Babylon.” 4 He said, “What have they seen in your house?” Hezekiah answered, “They have seen all that is in my house. There is nothing in my storehouses that I did not show them.”
5 Then Isaiah said to Hezekiah, “Hear the word of the Lord of hosts: 6 Behold, the days are coming, when all that is in your house, and that which your fathers have stored up till this day, shall be carried to Babylon. Nothing shall be left, says the Lord. 7 And some of your own sons, who will come from you, whom you will father, shall be taken away, and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.” 8 Then Hezekiah said to Isaiah, “The word of the Lord that you have spoken is good.” For he thought, “There will be peace and security in my days.”
 This is the way men complete their business. The seller shows what he has to sell; that excites the buyer. The buyer shows his money; that excites the seller.
 This is the way the Devil works. He does not just tell someone about the sin: he shows it. When we see it with our eyes, the temptation arouses our desire.
 Note how the Serpent plays upon Eve’s desires not just with words but with sense. He uses words to get her to consider the issue; just take a look:
Genesis 3:1–7 (ESV)
Now the serpent was more crafty than any other beast of the field that the Lord God had made.
He said to the woman, “Did God actually say, ‘You shall not eat of any tree in the garden’?” 2 And the woman said to the serpent, “We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden, 3 but God said, ‘You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.’ ” 4 But the serpent said to the woman, “You will not surely die. 5 For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” 6 So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, and she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate. 7 Then the eyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked. And they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves loincloths.
 This is a debated passage: who are the “sons of God”:
Genesis 6:1–2 (ESV)
When man began to multiply on the face of the land and daughters were born to them, 2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of man were attractive. And they took as their wives any they chose.
This is followed by the Flood.
 King Ahab saw the vineyard of his neighbor Naboth. It filled him with desire. This led to his wife having Naboth killed on trumped-up charges so Ahab could steal the land.
20 And Achan answered Joshua, “Truly I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and this is what I did: 21 when I saw among the spoil a beautiful cloak from Shinar, and 200 shekels of silver, and a bar of gold weighing 50 shekels, then I coveted them and took them. And see, they are hidden in the earth inside my tent, with the silver underneath.”
22 So Joshua sent messengers, and they ran to the tent; and behold, it was hidden in his tent with the silver underneath.
Achan would be used as a frequent example of the progression of covetousness to sinful action. For example, “Satan is ever casting in the angle of a tentation, to see whether we will bite; he knows how to suit his tentations; he tempted Achan with a wedge of gold: he tempted David with beauty; we cannot lock the door of our heart so fast by prayer, but a tentation will enter.” Thomas Watson, The Christian Soldier, or Heaven Taken by Storm, ed. Armstrong, Second American Edition. (New York: Robert Moore, 1816), 201.
By faith Moses, when he was born, was hidden for three months by his parents, because they saw that the child was beautiful, and they were not afraid of the king’s edict. 24 By faith Moses, when he was grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, 25 choosing rather to be mistreated with the people of God than to enjoy the fleeting pleasures of sin. 26 He considered the reproach of Christ greater wealth than the treasures of Egypt, for he was looking to the reward. 27 By faith he left Egypt, not being afraid of the anger of the king, for he endured as seeing him who is invisible. 28 By faith he kept the Passover and sprinkled the blood, so that the Destroyer of the firstborn might not touch them.
 God pronounced judgment upon Sodom. However, God graciously provided for the escape of Lot (Abraham’s nephew) and Lot’s family. The angels who led Lot from the city warned them carefully to flee and to not look at the city. Lot’s wife looked back and was turned to salt. J.C. Ryle preached a tremendous sermon on this passage, “A Woman to be Remembered.”
 The image here is pile of dry brush and a match. There must be a match. There must be the tinder. When the two come into contact, there is fire: “the heart of man being as tinder or powder, easily catching at every spark that sets the flesh on fire.”Thomas Manton, The Complete Works of Thomas Manton, vol. 18 (London: James Nisbet & Co., 1874), 390. The image of the heart as tinder was a commonplace among those following the time of Andrewes.
 This is a passage in which Job protests his innocence:
Matt. 4. Ver. 8 & 9. Again, the Devil takes him up into an exceeding high mountain, and shows him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them.
And saith unto him: All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.
At the first overthrow, we had the first Again: and when Christ overthrew him then also, yet would not the Devil leave then neither, but he comes with his second Again: he comes again and again. The first Again was an argument of his courage and stomach: this second, is an argument of his importunity.
The first repulse could not drive him away, nor the second neither, no, nor this third for altogether: for Luke says, He departed for a season, Lu. 4. 13. So that as Christ saith, John 16. 16. After a while ye shall see mee, and after a while you shall not see mee: so saith the Devil also, After a while you shall not see me, & again after a while you shall see me.
Which teaches us this lesson, that it is not enough to have prevailed against his temptations twice or thrice, & so become secure: but we are always to stand upon our guard, knowing how the Devil will successively, every turning of a hand, be with us; & that while we live, we shall never be at rest with him: or if he tempt us not, we shall be in as bad or worse case.
For so long as the Lord left other nations among the Israelites, to prove them by, & to be pricks to their sides, it went well enough with them, Jud. 3. 1. but when they began to live in some security (having for the most part subdued them) then grew they to mutual dissention.
It is the greatest temptation, to be without temptation.
Therefore, Paul had the messenger of Satan to buffet him, 2. Co. 12.7 for then follows the pressing of God by prayers. But whether we join hands with Satan, or resist him, we shall be sure he will set upon us, & try by fair means [any effective means] what he can do, or if we say nay, yet in the end he will weary us as Dalila did Sampson, Jud. 16. 16. who, because she was importunate, his soul was pained to the death, & then he told her: or if we will be obstinate in rejecting his temptations, giving him at the first a peremptory refusal: then he will go another way to work, as to imagine [think up] some devise [strategy] against us, & smite us with the tongue, Jer. 18. 18, he will be rough with us.
If none of these will prevail, he will persuade us, we must be like other men, & that is as profitable or pleasant to us, & then say Samuel what he can, we will have a king, 1. Sa. 8. 19. And when we have yielded once, then goes he to fetch company, and takes unto him seven worse spirits than himself, Luke 11. 26. So, the last state of that man is worse than the first. Give but an inch, and he will take an ell [around 18 inches] if he can get in but an arm, he will make shift to shove in his whole body. As we see if the point of a nail have once made entry, the rest will soon in.
We see an example of his encroaching even in David, 2. Sam. 11. 4. after he had once made him commit adultery by some mean degrees with Bethsheba, see how he tolls him on from one wickedness to another. She was with child, her husband being in the service of God and the King was by the King murdered to hide her shame, and satisfy his lust. So did he draw on Peter, first he made him follow a loose off; secondly, flatly to deny Christ; thirdly, to forswear him; and fourthly, to curse himself if he knew him.
The Hebrew writers note, that the Devil’s name Beelzebub, signifies a great flesh fly, or a master fly: flap him away never so often, he will still fly thither again. So, the Devil will never cease molesting us, till the smoking flax be quite quenched, and the bruised reed clean broken, Isaiah 42. 3.
First, he twists certain small threads together, and so makes a little cord of vanity, to draw us unto him: afterward with a cart-rope or gable of iniquity, he seeks to bind us fast unto him for starting; either by the vice of lust, or of envy, or at least covetousness. But if all should fail, pride is sure to hold. Oh Lord, I thanke thee, I am not like such and such, nor like this Publicane (a degree further) nor lyke this Pharisie, Luke18. 11.
This may be a good caveat unto us, that we stand always upon our guard, & that we be sure that we make strong resistance in the beginning, and break it (if we can) while it is but a whipcord. And to use the like policy in a good matter, that the King of Egypt did in a bad; who took order that every male child should be killed, to keep the Israelites down betimes: & against the succession of temptation, to entertain the succession of prayer.
Now to the matter. The Devil deals as with a city. In the first he tells him, he must be famished, except he can turn stones into bread. Secondly, he comes to make a train [a line] of Scripture to entrap him. Now he comes to the ordinary means of dealing, that is; when men strive about anything, and both parties are loath to yield, there will be some parley of composition and sharing between them. So here, the Devil seeing that he cannot over-throw his faith, offers, him to compound [make a deal] and (on his part) he is content to give Christ all the Kingdoms of the world, if our Savior (for his part) will but fall down, and worship him.
The Devil before came disguised in the shape of a malcontent, as that Christ should be in such hunger. Next, he came in the habit [clothing, outfit] of a Divine [a theologian] and that very demurely, with his Psalter in his hand. Now he comes in all his Royalty, like the Prince of this world, as he is so called, John 4. 30. He does not stand pelting with Christ, but goes roundly and frankly to work: he offers all that he hath, (and that is no small matter) to bring Christ but to one sin, that so he might overthrow all mankind.
He comes no more now with Si filius Dei es: for that we see is here left, he would not have him think on it, he would have him now filius seculi.
This is called by Saint Paul, the bewitching Temptation, whereby men become so foolish, as that after they have begun in the spirit, they will end in the flesh, Galatians. 3. 3.
Where the Devil cannot prevail, either by our own concupiscence, or by his enticings: he will see what he can do with his Dragons tail, and by that means (say the Fathers) he did more hurt, than by the other. Secondly, his tail is said to draw down the third part of the stars of heaven, and to cast them to the earth. Apoc. 12. 4.
What can we learn about temptation. First, temptation will always be coming and will never be silent. We should always expect it. Thus, when we don’t see temptation coming we are in danger:
It is the greatest temptation, to be without temptation.
This sounds paradoxical. But the truth is temptation is always working even if we are not aware. John Owen put the matter like this:
Sin doth not only still abide in us, but is still acting, still labouring to bring forth the deeds of the flesh. When sin lets us alone we may let sin alone; but as sin is never less quiet than when it seems to be most quiet, and its waters are for the most part deep when they are still, so ought our contrivances against it to be vigorous at all times and in all conditions, even where there is least suspicion.
John Owen, The Works of John Owen, ed. William H. Goold, vol. 6 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, n.d.), 11.
Being aware of temptation can keep us safe. Also, being tempted will keep us humble. God used the nations about Israel to vex them to keep them dependent upon God. As soon as they thought they were safe, they fell into sin. Even the Apostle Paul needed vexation to keep him from sin. And so God can use even trials and temptations to keep us from sin.
Now to some observations of our enemy. He will be persistent. If he cannot strike one way, he will find another. If he cannot work with lust or envy, he will with pride. If he cannot tempt, he will negotiate. What is true is that he will never stop.
And he will come back. Again. And again.
If you let him just a little, everything will come along behind. Andrewes illustrates this with a series of images. Sin is like a nail, first the time then the body. Sin is like someone weaving a cord who soon finds themselves tied by a rope. John Owen, again:
“Sin aims always at the utmost; every time it rises up to tempt or entice, might it have its own course, it would go out to the utmost sin in that kind. Every unclean thought or glance would be adultery if it could; every covetous desire would be oppression, every thought of unbelief would be atheism, might it grow to its head. Men may come to that, that sin may not be heard speaking a scandalous word in their hearts,—that is, provoking to any great sin with scandal in its mouth; but yet every rise of lust, might it have its course, would come to the height of villany: it is like the grave, that is never satisfied. And herein lies no small share of the deceitfulness of sin, by which it prevails to the hardening of men, and so to their ruin, Heb. 3:13,—it is modest, as it were, in its first motions and proposals, but having once got footing in the heart by them, it constantly makes good its ground, and presseth on to some farther degrees in the same kind. This new acting and pressing forward makes the soul take little notice of what an entrance to a falling off from God is already made; it thinks all is indifferent well if there be no farther progress; and so far as the soul is made insensible of any sin,—that is, as to such a sense as the gospel requireth,—so far it is hardened: but sin is still pressing forward, and that because it hath no bounds but utter relinquishment of God and opposition to him; that it proceeds towards its height by degrees, making good the ground it hath got by hardness, is not from its nature, but its deceitfulness. Now nothing can prevent this but mortification; that withers the root and strikes at the head of sin every hour, so that whatever it aims at it is crossed in. There is not the best saint in the world but, if he should give over this duty, would fall into as many cursed sins as ever any did of his kind.”
John Owen, The Works of John Owen, ed. William H. Goold, vol. 6 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, n.d.), 12.
What then must be our strategy? Be like the King of Egypt and be ruthless with your trouble. Kill and kill and resist. And you will fail. And when you fail, stop as soon as you can. Then turn to prayer.
This last move may, as a practical matter be the most difficult move. When we have sinned, we feel guilt. We are the prodigal son who is no longer worthy to be called a son. But we mistake God at this point. He sits upon a Throne of Grace. The grace is there because you need it. Your need for grace is no reason to stay far away.
14 Since then we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. 15 For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin. 16 Let us then with confidence draw near to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.
Hebrews 4:14–16 (ESV)
 Matthew 4:8–9 (ESV) 8 Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory. 9 And he said to him, “All these I will give you, if you will fall down and worship me.”
 The first “again” was the second temptation. The Devil tempted the Lord’s courage (stomach: do you have the stomach for this? The fortitude, the courage?) The third temptation was an insistent pressing (importunity).
 The implication of the statement in Luke’s account of the Temptations, the Devil departed for a while (a season) is that the Devil was only gone for a little while; but he came back
 Andrewes alludes to Jesus statement in John 14:19 in which he foreshadows his burial and resurrection: John 14:19 (ESV) “Yet a little while and the world will see me no more, but you will see me. Because I live, you also will live.” In a similar way, the Devil will leave but he will come back.
 Here is a practical application: If the Devil kept pestering and coming back to Jesus, how much more should we be prepared for constant temptation. If he would not leave the Lord alone, how can we expect we will be left alone.
 Judges 3:1 provides, “Now these are the nations that the Lord left, to test Israel by them, that is, all in Israel who had not experienced all the wars in Canaan.” When the people were under stress from their neighbors, they turned to God. But as soon as they thought they were secure, the immediately fell into sin.
 2 Corinthians 12:5–7 (ESV) “5 On behalf of this man I will boast, but on my own behalf I will not boast, except of my weaknesses— 6 though if I should wish to boast, I would not be a fool, for I would be speaking the truth; but I refrain from it, so that no one may think more of me than he sees in me or hears from me. 7 So to keep me from becoming conceited because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to harass me, to keep me from becoming conceited.”
 Give in or fight temptation, the Devil will not go away.
 The Devil will be like Delila when it comes to temptation. She repeatedly pled and nagged Sampson about the source of his strength. He misled her a couple of occasions. Finally from exhaustion at her importuning, he told her the truth: 16 And when she pressed him hard with her words day after day, and urged him, his soul was vexed to death. 17 And he told her all his heart, and said to her, “A razor has never come upon my head, for I have been a Nazirite to God from my mother’s womb. If my head is shaved, then my strength will leave me, and I shall become weak and be like any other man.” Judges 16:16–17 (ESV) Lewis gives an interesting picture of this in Perelandra, where the Tempter continues on without ceasing, without sleep, for days, seeking to ruin Eve.
 Jeremiah 18:18 (ESV) 18 Then they said, “Come, let us make plots against Jeremiah, for the law shall not perish from the priest, nor counsel from the wise, nor the word from the prophet. Come, let us strike him with the tongue, and let us not pay attention to any of his words.”
18:18 Jeremiah’s preaching did get results, but not the kind he desired. He wanted the people to believe his warnings and thereby avert the decreed punishment. Instead, his words only aroused his enemies’ fury and strengthened their determination to destroy him. They rejected Jeremiah’s warnings. They could not believe that a time was coming when the priests would no longer be teaching the law, when the wise would no longer be giving counsel, or, above all, when prophets would no longer be speaking words from God (cf. Ezek 7:26). They believed they could get along quite well without Jeremiah. So they determined to attack him with their tongues, that is, destroy his credibility or reputation by slander and malicious stories. They resolved to pay no attention to anything he said. The Syr says, “Let us smite him with his own tongue,” i.e., use his own words against him, perhaps to show he was a traitor or perhaps to show he was a false prophet because his predictions had not come to pass.
F. B. Huey, Jeremiah, Lamentations, vol. 16, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1993), 184.
 The people of Israel had grown tired of being led by God and so asked Samuel to get them a king, so they could be like the nations around them. In the same way, the Devil will seek to get us to just get along and be like everyone else.
 He alludes here to a saying of Jesus. Luke 11:24–26 (ESV) 24 “When the unclean spirit has gone out of a person, it passes through waterless places seeking rest, and finding none it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came.’ 25 And when it comes, it finds the house swept and put in order. 26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they enter and dwell there. And the last state of that person is worse than the first.”
 The Devil will not leave. If you give him an inch, he will take a mile. He is like a nail: if the tip gets in the rest will follow.
 David’s first sin of adultery, leads to lying. Lying then led to murder. One sin begets another.
 It is a promise of the coming Messiah that the Messiah will break the bruised reed or quench the burning flax. The Devil however will not stop until he has destroyed God’s work.
 He continues with the idea of how one leads to another. This time, Andrewes uses the image of someone weaving a rope. First a string, then a cord, then a rope. The end of this image is brilliant: Once the rope is built we are dragged along like a cart.
 If the Devil cannot take us by lust or envy or greed, he can always trip up us with pride. Shakespeare uses this to great effect in Measure for Measure. The reference is to the pride of the Pharisee at prayer: Luke 18:9–12 (ESV) 9 He also told this parable to some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and treated others with contempt: 10 “Two men went up into the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector. 11 The Pharisee, standing by himself, prayed thus: ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 12 I fast twice a week; I give tithes of all that I get.’
 Be always on your guard for sin. And then you realize you have made a beginning, break it off and escape. Do not let it continue to fester and gain in strength.
 To turn an image on its head: Be like the King of Egypt. He saw the Israelites were increasing rapidly. To keep them down, he killed all of the male babies. We need to as ruthless in a good cause, killing all the opportunities which rise up to catch us.
 You have stumbled into sin. Do not despair at that place. Stop. Regain yourself, turn to prayer and escape.
 The Devil tries to tempt with despair, then with presumption. When that fails, he sets upon a new strategy, like two parties in conflict where one offers to negotiate. Rather than fight, can’t we find some common ground?
 The Devil no more says, “If you are the Son of God” (Andrewes gives the Latin).
 Latin, Son of the World. Rather than be Son of God, why not be Son of the World.
 Galatians 3:1–3 (ESV) O foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you? It was before your eyes that Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as crucified. 2 Let me ask you only this: Did you receive the Spirit by works of the law or by hearing with faith? 3 Are you so foolish? Having begun by the Spirit, are you now being perfected by the flesh?
 We might say, If he cannot come in through the front door, he’ll try the back.
 He is here making use of the image of the Satan as Dragon in Revelation 12.
Matth. 4. Ver. 7. Iesus said vnto him, It is written againe: Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
Considering that Saint James says chap. 4. 5. The Scripture speaketh nothing in vaine: & that as our Savior Christ saith John 10. 35, No scripture can be disappointed; it may seem strange that the Devil coming armed with The sword of the spirite, (for so is the word of God termed, Ephes. 6. 17.) Christ gives not place, but opposes himself to answer. We see that a message coming in the name of the Lord, this very name abashed Nehemiah(Neh. 6. 10) at the first hearing, till he perceived it was contrary to the law of God, and so came not from him: which here we see to be the cause, why Christ does not yield by and by, upon the hearing of the Word, but sets himself to make answer: forsomuch as the word is not of force, Quia dicitur onely, but Quia creditur, as Augustine notes. If there bee not the mixture of faith with it, (whereof Paulspeakes, Heb. 4. 2.) it is nothing worth. And therefore, the bad spirit was nothing abashed or daunted, at the hearing of the bare names of Jesus and Paul, Act. 19. 15, but answered, I know them, but who are ye? They did not believe, and therefore could do them no good, but were wounded themselves: glorious names would not serve the turn. So was it here used without faith.
When the Scripture is here urged against one, a man would think it were not to be answered by citing another place of Scripture; but by some tradition of the Elders, Mark 7. 1 or some gloss, or other shift; but we see our Savior answers here no other way but by Scripture.
Because the wolf comes sometimes disguised in a sheep’s skin, it is no reason that therefore the very sheep should lay away their fleeces: so here, because the Devil uses the Word, as the slaying letter, 2. Cor. 3. 6 or as the sword to kill men with; it is no reason why Christ may not therefore use it in his own defense.
Why then (will some say) one of these two inconveniences will follow:  that hereby we shall think the Scripture is of the Devil’s side, as well as of Christ’s side, & so divided; as in like sort they make a division of Christ, when one holds with Paul, another of Apollos, 1 Cor. 1. 13. No, it is not so, Christ alleges not this Scripture in that sort, as one nail to drive out another: but by way of harmony and exposition, that the one may make plain the meaning of the other.
For albeit the Devil shows himself to be the Devil, in citing that text so, as might best serve for his purpose: in that, whereas the Psalm whereout he taketh it, has it thus, That he might keepe him in all his wayes; which words he leaves out. For if he had cited that, he could not thereby have enforced any casting down: for the angels have no charge over a man, but in his ways; & from the top of the pinnacle there was no way, but down the stairs on his feet. He was not (relying on the angels) to cast himself down with his head forward. But the Devil has a wrest, to make the string sound high or low, as he list; or if that will not serve, he hath a rack to stretch them out, as some did Saint Paul’s Epistles, 2. Pet. 3. 16. He can set them on the tenters, to prove, that down the stairs, or over the battlements, all is one, the angels shall safeguard him.
Though this (I say) be the Devil’s corruption, which the late writers have well spied: yet Christ (we see) is not willing to take advantage of that, but uses a wiser course; for so are we to think, that he went the best way to work, that is, the conference of Scripture with Scripture, which Christ here practices, and commends unto us.
In every art, all propositions are not of a like certainty, but some be grounds and principles so certain, as that no exception is to be taken against them. From them are others derived, by a consequence called deduction, not so certain as the other: from these again to others, to the twentieth-hand. So is it in Divinity [theology]. Christ here reduces the Devil’s argument & place, to a place most plain to be confessed. For the Jews valuing of the means, had to consider, that God fed them with Manna, which they knew not, to teach them, that Man liueth not by bread onely, Deut. 8.3 condemning the same: and in Deut. 6. 16 bad [said, exhorted] them they should not tempt their Lord their God, as in Massah, when they cried for bread.
The Lord curses him, that makes flesh his arm, and withdraws his heart from God, Jer. 17. 5. They sacrificed unto their yarn, because their portion was plentiful, Hab 1. 16. Job condemns the making gold our hope, or the wedge of gold our confidence, chap. 31. ver. 24. As then we must not deify the means, attributing all sufficiency to them: so, we may not nullify them, & think too basely of them, but use them, that we tempt not God, according to his Word.
Out of these two grounds, may every question be resolved: for every proposition must be proved out of the ground. So that, as we may not think the arm of God to be so shortened, that he cannot help without means: so are we not to think basely of God, for ordaining means.
Secondly, we heard, that the Devil’s allegation was taken out of the Psalm, and one of the most comfortable places of all the Psalms. Christ by not standing in disputation about the words and meaning of the text, commends to us the safest and wisest way to make answer in such like cases. Our Savior would warn us, that the Psalm 91 is not fit matter for us to study on, when we are on the top of the pinnacle: he therefore chooses a place of a contrary kind, to counterpoise himself, standing in that tickle place.
The Law (we know) is a great cooler to presumption. If one tamper much with the Psalms, being in the case of confidence, he may make the fire too big. Faith is the fire which Christ came to put on the earth, and it is seated between two extremes, Distrust, and Presumption. Distrust is as water to it, which if it be powered on in abundance, it will make it to be smoking flax, or utterly quench it: Presumption (on the other side) is a gunpowder to it, which being thrown into it, it will blow it up, and make it fly all about the house. Christ was to take heed of over-heating his faith. Luther [writing] upon the Galatians saith, the 91[st] Psalm is no meet study for many men’s humors in our days: they had more need of a corrosive, to eat out the soar of the root and bottom.
In this section, Andrews provides instruction on how to understand and make use of Scripture. The first proposition is that Scripture is not a magic recitation. He gives the example of the exorcists who heard of Paul exorcising demons in the name of Jesus. These men, who did not have faith in Jesus, who did not belong to him, thought that merely using the name would give them power. It was not so. It is not the saying of the words, but the believing reception of the words which is efficacious. An unbeliever handling the Scripture will not profit them.
The Devil is the ultimate unbeliever and hence his quotation of the Scripture was not to his profit.
Second proposition: One would have supposed that Jesus would have contested the Devil’s presentation by arguing over the meaning of the passage (indeed, the Devil takes the passage out of context, as Andrews will argue later in this section). But Jesus rebuts the Devil by showing that Scripture is to be read as a harmonious whole. Yes, the Scripture here in this way, but it also provides further clarity on our relationship to God in another place. We must consider both passages to understand either.
All our understanding of the Scripture must be as harmonious. If we come to an understanding which results in conflicts where either one or the other passage must be right (where one nail drives out another), our understanding is incorrect.
The Devil misuses the Scripture in a way to cause a conflict with other passages, and a conflict even with the immediate Psalm.
This leads Andrews to make a comment on the question of God’s use of ordinary means to perform ends. The common way to come down from a pinnacle is by the stairs, not to leap and let the angels catch you before you hit the ground. God is not bound by the means. He most commonly provides us by breach by cause the grain to grow from the ground. But God is not bound by means. He can provide bread in the wilderness without apparent means.
He provides a final observation on the use of the Scripture. There are passages which give us much comfort and hope such as the 91st Psalm. Taken by itself, without reference to the rest of Scripture, could easily lead one to presumption:
Psalm 91:1–13 (ESV)
91 He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High
will abide in the shadow of the Almighty.
2 I will say to the Lord, “My refuge and my fortress,
my God, in whom I trust.”
3 For he will deliver you from the snare of the fowler
and from the deadly pestilence.
4 He will cover you with his pinions,
and under his wings you will find refuge;
his faithfulness is a shield and buckler.
5 You will not fear the terror of the night,
nor the arrow that flies by day,
6 nor the pestilence that stalks in darkness,
nor the destruction that wastes at noonday.
7 A thousand may fall at your side,
ten thousand at your right hand,
but it will not come near you.
8 You will only look with your eyes
and see the recompense of the wicked.
9 Because you have made the Lord your dwelling place—
the Most High, who is my refuge—
10 no evil shall be allowed to befall you,
no plague come near your tent.
11 For he will command his angels concerning you
to guard you in all your ways.
12 On their hands they will bear you up,
lest you strike your foot against a stone.
13 You will tread on the lion and the adder;
the young lion and the serpent you will trample underfoot.
This could lead one to think that no danger will ever befall me. But we must not read these promises as absolute and disregard the remainder of the Scripture. Consider the life of Christ, himself. He was arrested, falsely accused, beaten, then crucified. He himself promised we would have trouble in this world. We have the book of Job and Ecclesiastes as well as the Psalms and Proverbs.
Our reading of the Scripture must be of the whole, not isolated parts. Read alone without reference to whole could lead to despair or presumption; the twin dangers which the Devil has sought to exploit in the first two temptations.
Christ’s defense to the Devil’s misuse of Scripture was more Scripture.
What this means for our application is that our knowledge of the Scripture must be more complete. I do not recall the precise reference, but I recall reading in Chrysostom an admonition to the congregation that they go out unarmed, because they do not know the Scripture.
 Matthew 4:7 (ESV) “Jesus said to him, “Again it is written, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’ ””
 James 4:5 (ESV) “Or do you suppose it is to no purpose that the Scripture says, ‘He yearns jealously over the spirit that he has made to dwell in us’?” Andrews takes the proposition used in the particular in James, do you suppose this one particular statement is of “no purpose,”, i.e., vain and applies it generally. This is an appropriate use of the passage, because the specific application presumes the general. If the Scripture could speak in vain, then the particular instance could be vain. However if the Scripture always speaks to purpose, then all particular instances speak to purpose.
 John 10:35 (ESV) “If he called them gods to whom the word of God came—and Scripture cannot be broken—” I am not sure where Andrews got the word “disappointed.” It is possible conceptually to obtain “fail” as an idea related to the Greek verb used in this place: the verb means to untie, to loose, to set free, to destroy. So one could see a metaphorical use which would have the connotation of “disappoint.” But the word “broken” was used going back to Tyndale, and was used in the Geneva.
 The argument runs thus, The Scripture cannot fail in its effect. The Devil quotes from the Bible and says to Jesus, “Do you really believe this promise that you will be hurt if you fall?” The Devil seems to have caught Jesus in a dilemma.
 The passage reads: “9 For they all wanted to frighten us, thinking, “Their hands will drop from the work, and it will not be done.” But now, O God, strengthen my hands. 10 Now when I went into the house of Shemaiah the son of Delaiah, son of Mehetabel, who was confined to his home, he said, “Let us meet together in the house of God, within the temple. Let us close the doors of the temple, for they are coming to kill you. They are coming to kill you by night.” 11 But I said, “Should such a man as I run away? And what man such as I could go into the temple and live? I will not go in.” 12 And I understood and saw that God had not sent him, but he had pronounced the prophecy against me because Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him.” When Nehemiah first heard considered the words might come from God he was concerned. But upon understanding that this was not God’s word to him, he put it aside. By analogy: The Devil’s use of Scripture gives the appearance of being a word from God, but it was a misuse of the text.
 Latin, What is believed. The source is quoted by Calvin in the Institutes: “At longe aliter de Verbo sacramentali docet Augustinus (hom. in Ioann. 13.): ‘Accedat, inquit, verbum ad ele mentum, et fiet sacramentum. Unde enim ista tanta virtus aquae ut corpus tangat, et cor abluat, nisi faciente verbo? non quia dicitur, sed quia creditur. Nam et in ipso verbo aliud est sonus transiens, aliud virtus manens. Hoc est verbum fidei quod praedicamus, inquit Apostolus (Rom. 10:8.). Unde in Actis Apostolorum, Fide mundans corda eorum (Act. 15:9.). Et Petrus Apostolus, Sic et nos Baptisma salvos facit, non depositio sordium carnis, sed conscientiae bonae interrogalio (1 Petr. 3:21.). Hoc est verbum fidei quod praedicamus: quo sine dubio, ut mundare possit, consecratur et Baptismus.’” John Calvin, Institutio Christianae Religionis, vol. 2 (Berolini: Gustavum Eichler, 1834), 352. “Far different is the teaching of Augustine concerning the sacramental word: ‘Let the word be added to the element and it will become a sacrament. For whence comes this great power of water, that in touching the body it should cleanse the heart, unless the word makes it? Not because it is said, but because it is believed. In the word itself the fleeting sound is one thing; the power remaining, another. ‘This is the word of faith which we proclaim,’ says the apostle [Rom. 10:8]. Accordingly, in The Acts of the Apostles: ‘Cleansing their hearts by faith’ [Acts 15:9]. And the apostle Peter: ‘Thus baptism … saves us, not as a removal of filth from the flesh, but as an appeal … for a good conscience …’ [1 Peter 3:21 p.]. ‘This is the word of faith which we proclaim’ [Rom. 10:8], by which doubtless baptism, that it may be able to cleanse, is also consecrated.’” John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion & 2, ed. John T. McNeill, trans. Ford Lewis Battles, vol. 1, The Library of Christian Classics (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011), 1279.
 Acts 19:13–16 (ESV) “13 Then some of the itinerant Jewish exorcists undertook to invoke the name of the Lord Jesus over those who had evil spirits, saying, “I adjure you by the Jesus whom Paul proclaims.” 14 Seven sons of a Jewish high priest named Sceva were doing this. 15 But the evil spirit answered them, “Jesus I know, and Paul I recognize, but who are you?” 16 And the man in whom was the evil spirit leaped on them, mastered all of them and overpowered them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded.”
 The name of Jesus was not a magic word, which merely saying commands evil spirits.
 The words of Scripture are not magic. They are used by the Spirit when received by faith.
 One would think that the response to be presented with a proposition from Scripture and being told, do you believe this? Would respond with, “You have misinterpreted the passage. It does not mean what you say it means.” The “tradition of elders” means an authoritative interpretation of the most respected teachers. A “gloss” means an explanatory paraphrase. A “shift” would be something else which would “shift” the basis of the proposition.
 The metaphor is based upon Jesus’ words in Matthew 7:15 that false prophets will come “in sheep’s clothing”, i.e., disguised as a sheep and thus a true follower. Andrews means, that just because a false prophet comes in sheep’s clothing is no reason to give up the flock. More particularly, just because you are defined by the Scripture, it does not mean that you should give up the Scripture when it is misused by someone. A present application of this proposition would be found in those who some proposition out of the Bible which appears to either contradict the rest of Scripture or which makes the Bible sound unfair or unjust. In response, rather than permitting the Bible to defend itself, we run to some other source of authority.
 2 Corinthians 3:4–6 (ESV) “Such is the confidence that we have through Christ toward God. 5 Not that we are sufficient in ourselves to claim anything as coming from us, but our sufficiency is from God, 6 who has made us sufficient to be ministers of a new covenant, not of the letter but of the Spirit. For the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.”
 The Devil’s misuses the Scripture is no reason for Christ to abandon the Scripture.
 The Corinthian church had broken up into factions which each claimed they were followers of a particular teacher, such as Paul, or Apollos, or Peter. The letter addresses this ungodly fracturing.
 An “allegation” here does not mean an accusation in a legal document which has yet to be proved, but rather an assertion.
 Andrews here lays down a rule of interpretation. Scripture is not to be read in such a way that one text trumps another: like hammering a nail on a nail drives the bottom nail out of the wood. This can happen when one reads the Bible as if it were a series of separate books which have been cobbled together, the books with different ends and different authors. Rather, the Scripture is to be read as a consistent harmony. We cannot take Scripture out of context, and in the end, the context is the entire Bible. This principle was set forth in the Westminster Confession as follows: “VII. All things in scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all;p yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed, for salvation, are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.” Westminster Assembly, The Westminster Confession of Faith: Edinburgh Edition (Philadelphia: William S. Young, 1851), 19.
to guard you in all your ways. The Geneva has “to kepe thee in all thy ways” as does the Matthew’s translation. The difference between Andrews and the Geneva or Matthews is “to keep him” and “to keep you.”
 This is an interesting reading of the verse: the verse was not a promise that the angels would protect no matter the psalmist did (here referring to the Messiah). But the protection was afforded for him being where he was called to be.
 He compares the Devil’s speech to one tuning a stringed instrument: The Devil can twist the string however much he desires so that it will play the note he wishes to obtain, that is, he can make words sound however he wishes them to sound.
 2 Peter 3:14–16 (ESV) “14 Therefore, beloved, since you are waiting for these, be diligent to be found by him without spot or blemish, and at peace. 15 And count the patience of our Lord as salvation, just as our beloved brother Paul also wrote to you according to the wisdom given him, 16 as he does in all his letters when he speaks in them of these matters. There are some things in them that are hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures.” The Devil can even twist Scripture to a bad end.
 Rather than demonstrate that the Devil has misapplied the Scripture in place here, Christ has chosen a different form of response by referencing other Scripture to show that Scripture as a whole must be read in harmony.
 Any area of knowledge consists of basic principles or axioms which are taken as certain. From those basic principles other propositions may be determined by means of deduction.
 Deuteronomy 8:1–3 (ESV) “The whole commandment that I command you today you shall be careful to do, that you may live and multiply, and go in and possess the land that the Lord swore to give to your fathers. 2 And you shall remember the whole way that the Lord your God has led you these forty years in the wilderness, that he might humble you, testing you to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep his commandments or not. 3 And he humbled you and let you hunger and fed you with manna, which you did not know, nor did your fathers know, that he might make you know that man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by every word that comes from the mouth of the Lord.”
 Deuteronomy 6:16 (ESV) “You shall not put the Lord your God to the test, as you tested him at Massah.” Andrews is underscoring not merely that Jesus is reading the Bible as a harmony, but even the two verses he has quoted so far in response to the first two temptations are part of the same exhortation to the Israelites in the wilderness. First, God tested them so that they would learn they need to live upon God and not merely upon physical objects, like bread. God is the God of bread. Second, they should not “test” God by complaining that God is not meeting their immediate demands.
25 if I have rejoiced because my wealth was abundant
or because my hand had found much,
26 if I have looked at the sun when it shone,
or the moon moving in splendor,
27 and my heart has been secretly enticed,
and my mouth has kissed my hand,
28 this also would be an iniquity to be punished by the judges,
for I would have been false to God above.
 We must not understand the things in the world as having an efficacy in-and-of themselves. Food does not support our life because food has it in itself to support life, but because God has caused food to support our life. This is not to deny the reality or usefulness of food (for instance), but to understand that food is a creation and is subject to the Creator: “God in his ordinary providence maketh use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at his pleasure.” Westminster Assembly, The Westminster Confession of Faith: Edinburgh Edition, Chapter 5.3 (Philadelphia: William S. Young, 1851), 35.
 There must be a proper basis for any conclusion.
 Two points: First, we must not think that God’s power is limited to the use of means. God can work without means. Second, we must not think God is weak because he uses means.
 The Devil chose his text to tempt Jesus by using one of the most comforting passages among all of the Psalms.
 When we are in such a “ticklish” place, dangerous place, Jesus gives the proper way to respond. It is not a time for arguing.
 It would be easy to take certain texts, such as those which speak of God’s love and mercy out of the context of the entire Bible. God is a God mercy, but equally a God of justice. We are given the Psalms for comfort and the Law for direction.
 Luke 12:49 (ESV) “I came to cast fire on the earth, and would that it were already kindled!”
 If we find ourselves beset by distrust of God, it can act to quench faith, like water being poured on a fire.
 Presumption is a misuse of faith. Bringing presumption to faith is like bringing gunpowder to a fire.
 At this time, the greater problem is presuming upon the grace of God, rather than being fearful that God will hold anyone to account.
The Devil’s dart is▪ Cast thee downe: but he bestows some great cost on this. With the self-same armor that Christ bare off the other dart, does the Devil sharpen and harden this: he does not so in any other of the temptations, therefore we are to look for great matter: he brings scripture, that he may be the better credited. He speaks not now after the manner of men, 1. Cor. 9. 8, so that it is not he now that speaks, but Scripture, as Paul reasons there. You see (saith he) I counsel you to nothing, but that the Psalms will bear you out in.
The Devil knew well by his own fall, how dangerous the sin of presumption is, it cost him dearly, and so did Davidlikewise, and therefore of all other, he prays to God to keep him from presumptuous sins: Ps. 19. 13. He knew also what it was to abuse the goodness, patience and long suffering of God, Rom. 2. 4. Therefore he avouches it by Scripture: he tells him it will be long to go down the stairs, and teaches him a nearer way, but a jump, or to cast himself down, and to fear no hurt, for the Angels have charge of him.
And even so he persuades men now-a-days; that they need not go down faire and softly, in fear and trembling, but to defer all till their dying hour, & then commend themselves to God, and throw themselves upon Gods mercy, and that fiery Chariot that took up Elijah shall come and fetch up them: or else an angel shall carry them up, let them be sure they shall have no harm, for they be God’s darlings, and God doth so dote on them, that he will not suffer them in any case to receive the least hurt that may be.
If ever the Devil came in his likeness, it was here. In the first of Sam. 28.18. he came but in the guise of a Prophet: so that instead of saying, Is Saule among the Prophets? it might have been said, “What, is the Devil among the prophets?” But here he has used himself so cunningly, that if ever he was transformed into an angel of light, here it is verified. 1. Cor. 11. 14 for he comes here like a white devil, or like a Divine, he comes with a Psalter in his hand, and turns to the place, & shows our Savior the 91st Psalm vers. 11. and 12. wherein first we are to note, that the Devil reads Psalms, as well as we, and hath the words of Scripture in his mouth. And 1. Sam. 28. he counterfeited Samuel so right, and used the very words that he had used, that they could not know him from Samuel: so, here he counterfeited the voce of David, Act. 19. 15.
This will make us shake off security, considering that God does (for our trial) sometime deliver the adversary the key of the armory, whereby he is able to hold argument with an Archangell, Jude 9, yea, with Christ himself, as we see here. How careful therefore had we need to be, to find out a fit answer for him? For only to assault us does he read he Scriptures: yea, but not to anu good end, but even thereby to deceive the simplicity of men; as here, to make them put their souls in adventure to the last hour.
He has indeed a grace with some vain youths of the Court, & ungodly Atheists, to set them a scoffing at the Scripture, as Is. 28. 22. But with others, that have the Scriptures in more high reverence, he goes another way to work, making it to them the savor of death, Roman. chapt. 7. vers. 10.
The words which he uses in the name of Samuel, he uses to make Saul despair: and here he uses David’s words to cause presumption, and to make them our bane. And not every Scripture: but if there be any Scripture more full of heavenly comfort than another, that of all other will the Devil abuse; as indeed the Psalms are; and of all the Psalms, this 91. Especially, and in that part, if any one sentence be sweeter than another, that of all other will the Devil abuse.
Mark the second verse here cited. He shall giue his Angells charge ouer thee, to keepe thee in all thy ways. These last wordes the Devil leaves out, because they make not for his purpose. They shall beare thee in their hands, that thou dash not thy foote against a stone. And we shall see nothing can be spoken more comfortable: as first, in that it is said, that the Angels have charge over vs in all our ways: Exod. 23. 20. Behold I send my Angell before thee, to guide thee in the way, and to comfort, and confirm us: as when Jacob was in fear of his brother Esau, the Angel met him, Gen. 32. 1. and to defend us in all dangers, and succor us in all necessities, spreading their wings over vs, and pitching their tents about us, Ps. 34. 7.
Secondly, this charge not only concerns our head and principal members, but also our feet: yea, God’s providence reaches even to the hairs of our head, for they are numbered, Mat. 10. 30.
Thirdly, this charge of theirs is not only to admonish us when danger comes, but they are actually to help us, as it were putting their hands between the ground and us. Mat. 13. 41 they shall take the rubs and offences out of our way.
Fourthly, this do they not of courtesy, as being creatures given of nature to love mankind, but by special mandate and charge they are bound to it, and have a praecipe [Latin, mandate/charge] for it, yea, the very beasts & stones shall be in league with us. Job. 5. 23.
This Psalm, and these verses containing such comfort, hath the Devil culled to persuade men, that being such sweet Children of God, they may venture whether and upon what they will; for the Angels attend them at an inch. He bids them put the matter in adventure, and then but whistle for an angel, and they will come at first: he carries them up to the top of the pinnacle, and shows them their own case in Annas and Herod; and tells them God will require no more of them, than he did at their hands: & all the way as they go up, he sings them a Psalm of the mercies of God: he carries them up with a song, that God’s mercy is above all his works, Psalm. 145. 9. And with Psalm. 103.8 how gracious and long-suffring God is, who rewards us not according to our deserts: and Psalm. 136. That his mercie endureth for euer: God therefore being so full of mercy, will take all things in good part. But this mercy theDevil tells them of, differs from the mercy David [the Psalmist] meant: for the mercy David speaks of, is coupled with judgement, Ps. 101. 1. I will sing mercie and iudgement to thee O Lord: and Ps. 85. 10. Mercie & truth are met together, Iustice and peace haue kissed each other. Thus I say they shall have music all the way, & if any at the height think it a great way down: no, saith the Devil, you need but a jump from your baptism into heaven, you shall need no stairs at all.
This section raises the matter which Bonhoffer so strikingly called “cheap grace”:
CHEAP GRACE IS THE mortal enemy of our church. Our struggle today is for costly grace.
Cheap grace means grace as bargain-basement goods, cut-rate forgiveness, cut-rate comfort, cut-rate sacrament; grace as the church’s inexhaustible pantry, from which it is doled out by careless hands without hesitation or limit. It is grace without a price, without costs. It is said that the essence of grace is that the bill for it is paid in advance for all time. Everything can be had for free, courtesy of that paid bill. The price paid is infinitely great and, therefore, the possibilities of taking advantage of and wasting grace are also infinitely great. What would grace be, if it were not cheap grace?
Cheap grace means grace as doctrine, as principle, as system. It means forgiveness of sins as a general truth; it means God’s love as merely a Christian idea of God. Those who affirm it have already had their sins forgiven. The church that teaches this doctrine of grace thereby confers such grace upon itself. The world finds in this church a cheap cover-up for its sins, for which it shows no remorse and from which it has even less desire to be set free. Cheap grace is, thus, denial of God’s living word, denial of the incarnation of the word of God.
Cheap grace means justification of sin but not of the sinner. Because grace alone does everything, everything can stay in its old ways
Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Discipleship, ed. Martin Kuske et al., trans. Barbara Green and Reinhard Krauss, vol. 4, Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2003), 43. The Devil comes to us and tell us that God is all made up of mercy and grace, and that we, having been baptized can fall right into heaven (as he strikingly ends this section).
This false portrayal of God has been a danger throughout the history of the church. In our age, it is coupled with the idea that a God who punishes sin is unworthy to be God. It is presumption on our part: we presume that God will forgive all and everything, that sin is a very small thing.
Thomas Brooks explains that such a lie of Satan must be combated with the utmost gravity and consideration of the truth of the circumstance:
Remedy (3). The third remedy against this device of Satan is, seriously to consider, That sins against mercy will bring the greatest and sorest judgments upon men’s heads and hearts. Mercy is Alpha, Justice is Omega. David, speaking of these attributes, placeth mercy in the foreward, and justice in the rearward, saying, ‘My song shall be of mercy and judgment,’ Ps. 101:1. When mercy is despised, then justice takes the throne.4 God is like a prince, that sends not his army against rebels before he hath sent his pardon, and proclaimed it by a herald of arms: he first hangs out the white flag of mercy; if this wins men in, they are happy for ever; but if they stand out, then God will put forth his red flag of justice and judgment; if the one is despised, the other shall be felt with a witness.5
See this in the Israelites. He loved them and chose them when they were in their blood, and most unlovely. He multiplied them, not by means, but by miracle; from seventy souls they grew in few years to six hundred thousand; the more they were oppressed, the more they prospered. Like camomile, the more you tread it, the more you spread it; or to a palm-tree, the more it is pressed, the further it spreadeth; or to fire, the more it is raked, the more it burneth. Their mercies came in upon them like Job’s messengers, one upon the neck of the other: He put off their sackcloth, and girded them with gladness, and ‘compassed them about with songs of deliverance;’ he ‘carried them on the wings of eagles;’ he kept them ‘as the apple of his eye’ &c.6 But they, abusing his mercy, became the greatest objects of his wrath. As I know not the man that can reckon up their mercies, so I know not the man that can sum up the miseries that are come upon them for their sins. For as our Saviour prophesied concerning Jerusalem, ‘that a stone should not be left upon a stone,’ so it was fulfilled forty years after his ascension, by Vespasian the emperor and his son Titus, who, having besieged Jerusalem, the Jews were oppressed with a grievous famine, in which their food was old shoes, old leather, old hay, and the dung of beasts. There died, partly of the sword and partly of the famine, eleven hundred thousand of the poorer sort; two thousand in one night were embowelled; six thousand were burned in a porch of the temple; the whole city was sacked and burned, and laid level to the ground; and ninety-seven thousand taken captives, and applied to base and miserable service, as Eusebius and Josephus saith.1 And to this day, in all parts of the world, are they not the off-scouring of the world? None less beloved, and none more abhorred, than they.2
And so Capernaum, that was lifted up to heaven, was threatened to be thrown down to hell. No souls fall so low into hell, if they fall, as those souls that by a hand of mercy are lifted up nearest to heaven. You slight souls that are so apt to abuse mercy, consider this, that in the gospel days, the plagues that God inflicts upon the despisers and abusers of mercy are usually spiritual plagues; as blindness of mind, hardness of heart, benumbedness of conscience, which are ten thousand times worse than the worst of outward plagues that can befall you. And therefore, though you may escape temporal judgments, yet you shall not escape spiritual judgments: ‘How shall we escape, if neglect so great salvation?’ Heb. 2:3,3 saith the apostle. Oh! therefore, whenever Satan shall present God to the soul as one made up all of mercy, that he may draw thee to do wickedly, say unto him, that sins against mercy will bring upon the soul the greatest misery; and therefore whatever becomes of thee, thou wilt not sin against mercy, &c.
Thomas Brooks, The Complete Works of Thomas Brooks, ed. Alexander Balloch Grosart, vol. 1 (Edinburgh; London; Dublin: James Nichol; James Nisbet and Co.; G. Herbert, 1866), 28–29.
Therefore, we must be careful to watch for this deception playing out in our own hearts, when we excuse and minimize our own sin.
 1 Corinthians 9:7–10 (ESV) “7 Who serves as a soldier at his own expense? Who plants a vineyard without eating any of its fruit? Or who tends a flock without getting some of the milk? 8 Do I say these things on human authority? Does not the Law say the same? 9 For it is written in the Law of Moses, “You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads out the grain.” Is it for oxen that God is concerned? 10 Does he not certainly speak for our sake? It was written for our sake, because the plowman should plow in hope and the thresher thresh in hope of sharing in the crop.” Paul supports his argument by referencing the Scripture. The Devil uses the same technique.
 The Devil provides an emphasis to this temptation which he does not make with his other temptations: I am not asking you to do anything other than what is specifically stated in the Scripture, specifically the Psalms.
11 And as they still went on and talked, behold, chariots of fire and horses of fire separated the two of them. And Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. 12 And Elisha saw it and he cried, “My father, my father! The chariots of Israel and its horsemen!” And he saw him no more. Then he took hold of his own clothes and tore them in two pieces.
 Rather than repent today just wait. And then, at the last minute, cast yourself upon God’s mercy and his angel will take you to heaven
 Saul having been abandoned by God goes to the witch at Endor and asks her to raise Samuel from the dead. An apparition appears who looks like Samuel and tells Saul he will die the next day. What actually took place has been a matter of debate. Andrews takes it that the Devil appeared in the likeness of Samuel.
10 When they came to Gibeah, behold, a group of prophets met him, and the Spirit of God rushed upon him, and he prophesied among them. 11 And when all who knew him previously saw how he prophesied with the prophets, the people said to one another, “What has come over the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?” 12 And a man of the place answered, “And who is their father?” Therefore it became a proverb, “Is Saul also among the prophets?” 13 When he had finished prophesying, he came to the high place.
 2 Corinthians 11:14 (ESV) And no wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light.
 A divine would be a well-trained pastor or theologian, an expert in divinity.
 He pretended to be Samuel when Saul went to the witch at Endor. And the Devil pretends to speak like David when he comes to Jesus, since David wrote many of the Psalms.
 Acts 19:13–17 (ESV) 13 Then some of the itinerant Jewish exorcists undertook to invoke the name of the Lord Jesus over those who had evil spirits, saying, “I adjure you by the Jesus whom Paul proclaims.” 14 Seven sons of a Jewish high priest named Sceva were doing this. 15 But the evil spirit answered them, “Jesus I know, and Paul I recognize, but who are you?” 16 And the man in whom was the evil spirit leaped on them, mastered all of them and overpowered them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. 17 And this became known to all the residents of Ephesus, both Jews and Greeks. And fear fell upon them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was extolled.
9 But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, was disputing about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a blasphemous judgment, but said, “The Lord rebuke you.”
 Our armoury would be our defense against the Devil, in particular the Scripture itself. But here we see that the Devil can make use of the Scripture against. Therefore, we had better be prepared to know who to defend ourself against his wiles.
 The King’s court. The Devil has assistants in the government.
 For some, the Scripture does not bring relief but brings condemnation, hence, death: Romans 7:9–11 (ESV)
9 I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin came alive and I died. 10 The very commandment that promised life proved to be death to me. 11 For sin, seizing an opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me.
Andrews is also making an allusion to 2 Corinthians 2:14–16 (ESV)
14 But thanks be to God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession, and through us spreads the fragrance of the knowledge of him everywhere. 15 For we are the aroma of Christ to God among those who are being saved and among those who are perishing, 16 to one a fragrance from death to death, to the other a fragrance from life to life. Who is sufficient for these things?
 The Devil can turn any part of Scripture to his advantage. He uses words in one place to cause despair; in another place to tempt presumption. He can take the Psalms which are of all parts of the Bible most comforting and turn them into a plea for sin!
 The reference here is to the Israelites leaving Egypt and going into Canaan. God has promised to go with them to assure their protection and success. Exodus 23:20 (ESV)“Behold, I send an angel before you to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared.”
 Of Isaacs two sons, Jacob was the one who inherited the promise to Abraham. Following the conflict with Esau, Esau promised to kill Jacob. Jacob had fled to the extended family’s home in Haran. When Jacob returned to Canaan, he feared that Esau would finally execute his revenge. God kept his promise and Esau met Jacob kindly.
40 Just as the weeds are gathered and burned with fire, so will it be at the end of the age. 41 The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all law-breakers, 42 and throw them into the fiery furnace. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
 While we may not realize it, angels may have removed difficulties or obstacles without our notice.
The fifth device that Satan hath to draw the soul to sin is,
Device (5). To present God to the soul as one made up all of mercy. Oh! saith Satan, you need not make such a matter of sin, you need not be so fearful of sin, not so unwilling to sin; for God is a God of mercy, a God full of mercy, a God that delights in mercy, a God that is ready to shew mercy, a God that is never weary of shewing mercy, a God more prone to pardon his people than to punish his people; and therefore he will not take advantage against the soul; and why then, saith Satan, should you make such a matter of sin?
Thomas Brooks, The Complete Works of Thomas Brooks, ed. Alexander Balloch Grosart, vol. 1 (Edinburgh; London; Dublin: James Nichol; James Nisbet and Co.; G. Herbert, 1866), 27.
 His mercy/steadfast love endures forever is a repeated refrain in this Psalm:
Psalm 136:1–2 (ESV)
Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
for his steadfast love endures forever.
2 Give thanks to the God of gods,
for his steadfast love endures forever.
 God is not a God of mercy only, but of judgment and mercy. The mercy is when God withholds deserved judgment. The Devil is portraying a God of all mercy and no-judgment. The word translated as “mercy” in Andrews’ Bible and translated “steadfast love” in the ESV actually makes this point well. It is the Hebrew word Hesed:
It is not possible to convey precisely ḥesed ‘s semantic range as encountered in profane usage with one Eng. word. ḥesed is not “grace,” and the often suggested “favor” is insufficient. First, ḥesed occurs tangibly in concrete situations and at the same time transcends the individual demonstration and envisions the actor. In this regard, the term exhibits affinities with Eng. “kindness,” and with “goodness” as well (see 3c). ḥesed does occur in relation to particular social forms; its configuration may even be governed by them, but it is never the obvious, the obligatory. It is a human demeanor that alone can fill a form with life and is in some cases (not always) the very requirement for the birth of a community. Jepsen (op. cit. 269) attempted to describe the intention as good will that becomes good deed. This notion is certainly included but is alone insufficient. I suggest an expression for magnanimity, for a sacrificial, humane willingness to be there for the other (Stoebe, diss. 67; id., VT 2 : 248). It is a given that ḥesed always has to do in some way with the life of the other, and that one expects and hopes from the recipient of such ḥesed a similar willingness that in turn surpasses the obligatory.
Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997), 456.
The dart itself is, Cast thy self down: which consists of two points. First, the casting down: secondly, that he himself was to cast down himself.
For the first, it is general, the neglect of ordinary means; as here: whereas the ordinary way was down the stairs, he would have him leap, or throw himself over the battlements. And here a man may see to what end the Devil’s halting comes: he brings a man up by little & little to some high place, that so he may send him at once with his head downward. All the preferments that he bestows on a man, is not to any-other intent, but that he may do as the Devil himself did, (who being on high, did cast himself down) and so be like him. John 8. 23, that is, from beneath, not from above: who fell from heaven like lightning, Luke 10. 18.
So that howsoever in outward show he may seem to befriend vs, yet this is his inward intention and scope. As the Edomites in time of the prosperity of the Israelites, pretended great good will to them: but in the day of their calamity, they were they that cried, Downe with them, downe with them, Psalm. 137.7.
God’s manner is, when he means to exalt a man, he will first humble him, and make him low, Matt. 23. 12. The Devil’s manner is (we see) clean contrary. Is.14. 14, to lift them up to the clouds, that he may bring them down to the grave, yea to the lowest grave, Psalm. 86. 13. He carries them the higher, to throw them down with the greater violence. He lifts up Adam with a conceit [an idea, a thought] to be like God, to the very top of perfection to the intent he might be like the beast that perishes Psal. 49. 20.
The second hath some matter of comfort:
The Devil is here a suitor to him, to do it himself. Why does not the Devil cast him down?
First, it was not in his power; or if it had, yet would not that have served his turn: then there had been no sin of presumption in it. There must be two persons that must concur in our downfall: well may the Devil induce and move us to it; but unless we ourselves be consenting, & cast ourselves down, there can be no downfall to hurt us. For as Chrysostom saith, Nemo laeditur nisi a seipso: so Nullum precipitium nisi voluntarium. The Devil did not cram Eve with the forbidden fruit: but when she saw it, she took it, and eat it, Gen. 3. 6. So the Devil when he enters into the soul of a man (which he counts his palace) he does not break open the door, no, nor so much as draw the latch; but when he comes, he finds it swept and garnished, Luke 11. 25 and so goes in. There must therefore be a reaching out of the hand, & an opening of the door by ourselves, and so a casting down of yourself, or else though the Devil thrust sore at thee that you may fall, the Lord will help you, Ps. 118. 13.
In Deut. 22. 8. God has caused battlements to be made on every house top, by which we may stay ourselves: the Devil tells God, that he had made a hedge about Job1. 10. so that unless Job step over it, or break it down, he is safe.
Andrews notes two details of the temptation. From these two details, he draws application. First, the temptation is to be cast down. This would require one first to be up, so that it would be possible to fall. Application: God brings a man down before he raises him to usefulness. The first move with God is a move of humility. The Devil works in the opposite direction. He plays to human pride. The Devil raises a man to a place of prestige, of pride so that the man can fall into sin.
Second, the Devil does not throw a man down. To be thrown done is not a sin. Therefore, the Devil must use our desires, our volition against us. Unless we willing sin, we do not sin at all. God provides a protection for you to prevent our fall: it is like the small wall raised around edge of a roof. There is a wall about us. And so when we sin, it comes from our own willingness.
 This is the attack, the temptation of the Devil: Cast yourself down.
 A common manner of analyzing a text at this time among English theologians was to break down a proposition into its constituent parts. Here, Andrews breaks it down into the primary verb: casting down; and the agent of that action, “he himself.”
 Here we can see why the Devil stopped at this place.
21 So he said to them again, “I am going away, and you will seek me, and you will die in your sin. Where I am going, you cannot come.” 22 So the Jews said, “Will he kill himself, since he says, ‘Where I am going, you cannot come’?” 23 He said to them, “You are from below; I am from above. You are of this world; I am not of this world. 24 I told you that you would die in your sins, for unless you believe that I am he you will die in your sins.”
 Luke 10:17–20 (ESV) 17 The seventy-two returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons are subject to us in your name!” 18 And he said to them, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. 19 Behold, I have given you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy, and nothing shall hurt you. 20 Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.”
12 I give thanks to you, O Lord my God, with my whole heart,
and I will glorify your name forever.
13 For great is your steadfast love toward me;
you have delivered my soul from the depths of Sheol.
 Genesis 3:1–6 (ESV) Now the serpent was more crafty than any other beast of the field that the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God actually say, ‘You shall not eat of any tree in the garden’?” 2 And the woman said to the serpent, “We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden, 3 but God said, ‘You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.’ ” 4 But the serpent said to the woman, “You will not surely die. 5 For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” 6 So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, and she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate.
 The Devil is pressing a “suit” (like a “lawsuit”). He is asking for something.
 Why doesn’t the Devil just throw Jesus down, instead of asking Jesus to jump?
 When the Devil comes, he does not need to force entry; it is opened for him.
 Luke 11:24–26 (ESV) 24 “When the unclean spirit has gone out of a person, it passes through waterless places seeking rest, and finding none it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came.’ 25 And when it comes, it finds the house swept and put in order. 26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they enter and dwell there. And the last state of that person is worse than the first.”
 The Mosaic law required a small fence to be placed around the edges of the house roof. Roofs were flat and were used as living space. Andrews uses this as an image our soul. God has provided a protection for us. This is then extended to the image of Job, where it is said that God has placed a fence around Job (a hedge) to protect him. From this he concludes, that unless we willing go, the Devil will not succeed.
John Starke, notes that in A Secular Age, Charles Taylor, notes opposing temptations for the self-sufficient and for the believer:
Yet, at the same time, there is a “malaise” amid this self-sufficient humanism: “The sense can easily arise that we are missing something, cut off from something, that we are living behind a screen. . . . I am thinking much more of a wide sense of malaise at the disenchanted world, a sense of it as flat, empty, a multiform search for something within, or beyond it, which could compensate for the meaning lost with transcendence.”59 There is a fear and anxiety that “our actions, goals, achievements, and life, have a lack of weight, gravity, thickness, substance. There is a deeper resonance which they lack, which we feel should be there.”60 There is, then, a temptation among the secular toward transcendence. We cannot seem to live without it. At the same time, we Christians live and breathe in this secular age as well. This self-sufficient humanism becomes part of the muscle memory of our own souls, even if we are often unconscious to its effect. What Taylor tells us about secularists hits awfully close to home in the pews. So, then, while modern self-sufficient secularists are tempted toward belief, believers are constantly tempted toward self-sufficiency. The task of the preacher, it seems, is to aim at this dual temptation.
John Starke, “Preaching to the Secular Age” in Our Secular Age: Ten Years of Reading and Applying Charles Taylor (p. 41). The Gospel Coalition. Kindle Edition.
What I noticed with these two “temptations” is that they an observation of Lancelot Andrews in The Wonderful Combat: There is a temptation to despair, that God will not come for us. There is also the temptation of presumption, the temptation that God will do what I need. I think that these two temptations are the same as the “temptations” noticed by Starke.
There is the temptation that God has abandoned us, or perhaps there is no God at all.
Alone, what did Bloom feel? The cold of interstellar space, thousands of degrees below freezing point or the absolute zero of Fahrenheit, Centigrade or Reaumur: the incipient intimations of proximate dawn.
Ulysses (p. 806). Kindle Edition. The self-sufficient is unsure in this position, but so is the believer. We live in an age when belief is constantly contested, challenged. And thus both are constantly pressured (cross-pressured) into something approximates the others place:
Haunting Immanence Taylor names and identifies what some of our best novelists, poets, and artists attest to: that our age is haunted. On the one hand, we live under a brass heaven, ensconced in immanence. We live in the twilight of both gods and idols. But their ghosts have refused to depart, and every once in a while we might be surprised to find ourselves tempted by belief, by intimations of transcendence. Even what Taylor calls the “ immanent frame ” is haunted. On the other hand, even as faith endures in our secular age, believing doesn’t come easy. Faith is fraught; confession is haunted by an inescapable sense of its contestability. We don’t believe instead of doubting; we believe while doubting. We’re all Thomas now.
Smith, James K. A. (2106-02-06T22:28:15.000). How (Not) to Be Secular (Kindle Locations 195-201). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. Kindle Edition.
Notice here the temptations of despair and presumption, and how they play to both groups. The self-sufficient secularist begins at the place of presumption: he has already taken on this temptation, although the temptation is not to presume upon God to act, but to presume upon God to ignore:
Psalm 50:16–21 (ESV)
16 But to the wicked God says:
“What right have you to recite my statutes
or take my covenant on your lips?
17 For you hate discipline,
and you cast my words behind you.
18 If you see a thief, you are pleased with him,
and you keep company with adulterers.
19 “You give your mouth free rein for evil,
and your tongue frames deceit.
20 You sit and speak against your brother;
you slander your own mother’s son.
21 These things you have done, and I have been silent;
you thought that I was one like yourself.
But now I rebuke you and lay the charge before you.
However, the fact of God can never really be shaken. The irreducibility of the world is forcing its way in. In fact, Taylor’s secularist already seems to be outdate. The atheist of Dawkins or Hitchens was an untenable and never going to be popular version. We can see the movement into a rank paganism. Self-sufficiency contains within it a temptation to despair. Hanging on magic is a way to make bread out of stones (indeed, the temptation which the Devil made to Jesus seems to have been a temptation to become a conjurer or a magician in light of contemporary expectations!).
The believer seems to have avoided this, but the constant pressure of the secular age, the battering of doubt is constant:
Nothing is easy about faith in a secular age. “Faith is fraught, confession is haunted by an inescapable sense of its contestability,” Smith writes. “We don’t believe instead of doubting; we believe while doubting. We’re all Thomas now.”
Collin Hansen, “Doubt in our Secular Age,” Our Secular Age: Ten Years of Reading and Applying Charles Taylor (p. 4). The Gospel Coalition. Kindle Edition. This doubt then contains within it a seed of presumption: If God can be doubted, then perhaps I should myself. I should presume that God will not interfere. It is much the same as the temptation to turn stones into bread, but it is not bred from the same despair. It is more of a boast: I guess I’ll have to do it. It is not despair, God won’t come. It is the presumption, there is no God.
Now come we to the Temptation itself, which hath three general heads. First, the ball of wildfire; which is to consume his faith. Secondly, the dart, Cast thy selfe downe; which is to pierce the soul. Thirdly, he tempers the head of his dart with some stronger metal; which is, Scriptum est.
This is a great mote in the Devil’s eye, he uses the same term in the former temptation, and here he is up with it again. And all is to this end, that by often bringing it into question whether we be the sons of God; he may at last make it out of question or doubt, that we are not the sons of God: that by & from Si sis, he may bring it to Ne sis; and so we may be like himself.
For to this end is all his compassing of sea and land, to make one proselyte like himself, according to the endeavor of the Pharisees, Mat. 23. 15 who did in like sort, and when he is made, ye make him (two-fold more) the child of hell, than yourselves: as on the other side, Christ would have us [to be] the sons of God like hm. But see what a dexterity the Devil has, in making things serve for his purpose: he makes oneself same thing serve for two several, yea, contrary purposes. What a goodly grace he has in the first temptation? He uses it there to procure us to desperation: he makes it here serve for presumption.
But indeed there be two manners of Si es, or Ifs: the one is a questioning or doubting Si, as, If thou be the sonne of God, shew vs a signe, Mar. 8. 12. Lord if thou wilt, thou canst make me whole. Mat. 8. 2. The other is a plain affirmation, as Phil. 3. 11 If by any means I might attaine to the resurrection of the dead: where we are sure he made no doubt thereof. So here the Devil says, If thou be the Sonne of God, as I now grant indeed. I was in some doubt, but now I confess you are: I am of the voice’s mind, that pronounced you so at your baptism.
The Devil (in the former temptation) came out like a malcontent, or a murmurer: here he comes like a flattering parasite, he will pinguare caput eius oleo, make his head even swim in the oil of ostentation. But though it be not the same temptation, yet it is the same Devil in both places: for both by the one and other, he seeks the downfall and destruction of man: and though his two Ifs be contrary in themselves, yet are they both also contrary to the will and word of God: for he [God] would not in any case we should distrust him, neither would he that at any time we should cast ourselves down. And therefore, has he caused battlements to be made one every house top, that none might be slain with falling down, Deut. 22. 8. Now he would have him shew himself (thereby) to be the Son of God, for he is now in the sight of all Jerusalem.
It is said, that Christ comes now to put too a spark of fire, that is of faith, & that his will was, it might burn & be maintained. The Devil on the other side, labors by all means possible to quench and put it out: and seeing water would not do it in the former temptation; he goes now about to see, if he can make the very oil itself to put it out, even that very thing whereby it were to be maintained: as indeed it will, if we power out too great a quantity. Or if he cannot quench it, either with water or oil, he will see if he can blow it up with gunpowder.
As seeing the water of distrust will not extinguish his faith, but that he would trust in God: he endeavored now by Scriptures (that magnify the providence of GOD, and the confidence we are to put in him) to set him as far gone in the other extreme, by presuming or trusting too much, that so the fire, which before he would have quenched, may now so flame out, as, not to keep itself within the chimney, but to set the whole house on fire. This is the ball of wildfire of this second Temptation: and so both we see tend to the consuming & nullifying of our faith.
The Devil will seek by every means to bring us (and did try with Christ) to sin. His resourcefulness in seeking a temptation with the right “bait” can be seen by contrasting the two times he said to Jesus, “If you are the Son of God.”
In the first temptation, the Devil speaks as if he doubts that Jesus is the Son of God. He then seeks to cause Jesus to doubt God: are you really the Son of God? Will God really care for you?
He also compares faith to a fire, which the Devil sought to extinguish.
When the first temptation did not work, the Devil used the exact same words, “If you are the Son of God.” But this time he intended something quite different. Well now, since you are the Son of God—and I believe that voice that spoke from heaven at your baptism—since you are the Son of God we should be able to make good use of that. You are very, very important. There is no possibility that God would desert you.
So, tell you what, let’s just see (and let everyone else see) just how much God will go for you.
We have experienced and we have seen both sorts of temptation. There is the temptation that God has forgotten me, which was discussed in the previous sermon.
But when it comes to this temptation, perhaps the closest modern examples would be the Christian “celebrity pastor.” He acts without humility. He assumes and presumes on those around him. He excuses his sin, because he is under such pressure. He excuses such sin because he is obviously being “blessed.” He can do whatever he wants, because God is on his side.
Such is precisely the Devil’s play here: if he can’t extinguish faith, he will blow up into a wildfire and call the presumption “faith.”
15 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell as yourselves.
 As noted earlier: there are (at least) two types of temptation. One temptation works on our fear, we are tempted to distrust God out of desperation. One temptation works on our pride, we are tempted to presume upon God. The Devil is able to use the same ground (If you are the Son of God) to work for both temptations.
 Mark 8:11–13 (ESV) “11 The Pharisees came and began to argue with him, seeking from him a sign from heaven to test him. 12 And he sighed deeply in his spirit and said, “Why does this generation seek a sign? Truly, I say to you, no sign will be given to this generation.” 13 And he left them, got into the boat again, and went to the other side.”
 Matthew 8:1–2 (ESV) “When he came down from the mountain, great crowds followed him. 2 And behold, a leper came to him and knelt before him, saying, ‘Lord, if you will, you can make me clean.’”
 Philippians 3:9–11 (ESV) “9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God that depends on faith— 10 that I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death, 11 that by any means possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead.”
 The word “if” can used to express both doubt and certainty. If can mean, I don’t know if it is true. So if it is true, then …. But “if” can also be used to draw together a certain relationship. John Owen tackles as follows:
The first thing occurring in the words as they lie in the entire proposition is the conditional note, Εἰ δὲ, “But if.” Conditionals in such propositions may denote two things:—
(1.) The uncertainty of the event or thing promised, in respect of them to whom the duty is prescribed. And this takes place where the condition is absolutely necessary unto the issue, and depends not itself on any determinate cause known to him to whom it is prescribed. So we say, “If we live, we will do such a thing.” This cannot be the intendment of the conditional expression in this place. Of the persons to whom these words are spoken, it is said, verse 1 of the same chapter, “There is no condemnation to them.”
(2.) The certainty of the coherence and connection that is between the things spoken of; as we say to a sick man, “If you will take such a potion, or use such a remedy, you will be well.” The thing we solely intend to express is the certainty of the connection that is between the potion or remedy and health. And this is the use of it here. The certain connection that is between the mortifying of the deeds of the body and living is intimated in this conditional particle
John Owen, The Works of John Owen, ed. William H. Goold, vol. 6 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, n.d.), 6.
 Speaking as the Devil, Andrews says, “The first time I was unsure whether you were actually the Son of God. But now, I believe the voice that spoke from heaven at your baptism. You are the Son of God.”
 Latin, to make his head fat with oil, that is, to cover his head in oil. We would say, “He is laying it on thick.” Or “giving him a big head,” flattering him.
 In the first temptation, the Devil tried to make Jesus discontent with what God had determined. In this temptation, he sought to flatter Jesus to prideful display.
 Deuteronomy 22:8 (ESV) “When you build a new house, you shall make a parapet for your roof, that you may not bring the guilt of blood upon your house, if anyone should fall from it.” God does not seek that we should distrust him. God also does not want for us to throw ourselves from buildings. In fact, in the Mosaic law there was a provision to keep people safe from falling. The houses were made with flat roofs, which were used as a place to get out of the heat in the evening. A short wall was to be built along the sides to keep people safe.
Now to the Temptation: wherein we are to consider three things. First, the ground the Devil chose for the working of this temptation. Secondly temptation itself; to wit, the Devil’s speech. Thirdly, Christ’s answer to it.
In the place, three things are to be noted: first, the place itself: secondly, the Devil chose it: thirdly, that our Savior followed him thither.
For a new temptation, he [the Devil] makes choice of a new place. Indeed, for a temptation to presumption, the wilderness was not a fit place: first it was not high enough, and then it was not populous enough. It was a melancholy place: when a man is under the cross in affliction, or in some anguish and sorrow for want, death of friends, or otherwise; and generally, for all solitary men: the hungry temptation is fitter, than this of presumption.
Proof of the Point
As long as Noah was in the ark in the midst of the waters, he had in him no presumptuous thought: but sitting under the vine in his vineyard, he was overcome therewith. And just Lot (2. Pet. 2. 8.) in Sodom, had no fit time or place to be presumptuous; but when he dwelt in the mountain in security, then he committed incest with his daughters, being made drunk by them.
David, so long as he was persecuted by Saul, and tossed up & down from post to pillar, had no leisure to be presumptuous: but in the top of his turret, when he was at rest in his palace, 2. Sam. 11. 2. presumption gave him a blow.
So here the wilderness was no fit place, but the pinnacle is a very fit place for one to be presumptuous on. It is as good as a stage to shew himself upon, to see and to be seen.
In the wilderness there was small warrant for one that would be presumptuous: but from the pinnacle he might discern far and near, both the inner court and outward court, and see a whole cloud of witnesses, and have some warrant of example of all estates, high or low, wise or noble.
For what abuse soever be in him, be he never so presumptuous, he shall see some as provide, stout, and high minded as himself: be his hair never so long, or his ruffs never so great, he shall find some as far gone therein as himself.
If we mark the four gradations that it hath, we shall find it to be a very fit place. As first, before he could come to the pinnacle, he must go out of the wilderness into the city: secondly, not any city, but the Holy City [i.e., Jerusalem]: thirdly, into the temple of the city: and fourthly, out of the temple up to the pinnacle.
First, (having got him to leave the wilderness) he brought him into the city, that there he might say unto him: you see such & such grave [well-behaved, dignified] men, how they behave themselves: why should you seek to bee holier than they? This was a good civil temptation: he brought him not to Caesarea or Samaria, but even to Jerusalem, the Holy City: for that addition is given it, Luke 4.9 and Dan. 9. 24. Thirdly, he brought him into the Temple, where even the very ground was holy. Fourthly, not to any other place of it, but to the very top and pinnacle which was over the Sanctum Sanctorum.
Who would not tread hard there? and take upon him being in such a place, where if a man will be carried away with example; he may see Ananias the high Priest, renting his clothes, at the hearing of things that sounded like blasphemy, Mark 14. 63 and yet buying his bishopric for money; who will not then be bold to do the like?
And Herod a Prince, such a one as heard John Baptist preach; yea, and with much delight, to commit adultery, Mark6. 20 who would fear to doo the like? There he may see the Pharisee, under show of great holiness, tithing mint and cumin, and under color of long prayers, devour widow’s houses, bringing in by extortion, and sending out by excess, Matt. 23. 14, 21.
And so in this city [i.e., Jerusalem], one may see some men, both great frequenters of sermons, and yet great usurers; gentlewomen misshapen in their attire. Seeing this, who will not be as bold as they, the place being so holy? And being thus warranted by example, surely, we must needs commend the Devil’s wit [intelligence] for his choice.
First against some fantastical spirits [lying/slanderous people], who say, “Can that be a Holy City, where there be dumb dogs?” There were so in Jerusalem, Is56. 10, where the leaders be blind Matt. 15. 14. They were so where Judas ministered the sacrament, where there is division and debate amongst themselves, Phil. 4. 2. Can this (say they) be the Holy City? And thereupon they forsake the fellowship, Heb. 10. 25 whereas they (notwithstanding the former abuses, and notwithstanding the eleven tribes were apostates) did yet name it the Holy City.
Secondly, on the other side we are to be instructed, that though a man be on the battlements of the Church, yet hath he no sure footing, or cause to be secure; but rather to fear the more: for even there does the Devil stand at his elbow, watching his overthrow. There is no place (we see) privileged from temptations, no desert so solitary, but the Devil will seek it out: no pinnacle so high, but the Devil is a Bishop over it, to visit and overlook it.
To conclude, though in Jerusalem sit the abomination of desolation (whereof Daniel spoke) yet it is the Holy City stils. And though the place be never so holy, yet is that no cause of privilege; but even there may sit the abomination of desolation Both are proved out of Matt. 24. 15.
The second thing that we observed in the circumstance of place, is, that the Devil assumpted Christ: which, to those that are weak (as Gregory also collects) may be offensive, in giving them to think, that the Devil had such power over Christ as to carry him whether he listed. But when they shall consider, that even the limbs of the Devil haled and harrowed him to-and-fro, from Annas to Caiphas, from Caiphas to Pilate, from Pilate to Herod, and from him back again to Pilate: and how spitefully and contemptuously he was used in all these places, and at last carried to execution: what miracle will it be to see him (as Augustin speaks) In monte duci a capite, qui a membris traditur, &c.
These things do indeed (as all other his sufferings) set forth the greatness of the love of GOD towards us. Of God the Father, that would give his only Son; yea, appoint him this work of our salvation, and give the Devil such a power over him, Luke 20. 53. Of God the Son, that he would be content to suffer such indignity, Phil. 2. 7 as to be obedient to the death of the Cross.
The reason of all these his sufferings, as also that he would be baptized of John, a weak and sinful man; was (as himself declares it) to fulfil all righteousness, Matt. 3. 15. So here he was to suffer it, else God’s righteousness would not have been fulfilled, nor the work of our salvation. And as he suffered this Assumption, so afterwards, Luke 9. 51. his second Assumption, was to go to Jerusalem to suffer; and so at the last he came to his third and last Assumption, to be received up into glory, 1. Tim. 3. 16. And by the very same steps and degrees, must we be assumpted. And this is his assumption of suffering, which brought him to glorifying.
The third thing is, that our Savior our followed; whereby we are to mark, not so much his courage, that durst encounter with the Devil in any place wheresoever he list to carry him: and that he was not only the God of the valleys, but a God of the mountains also, contrary to their surmise, 1. King. 20. 23. That (I say) is not so much to be marked, as that our Savior would at all stand upon a pinnacle.
There be some that would make us believe, it is a sin to stand upon a pinnacle: but then if that had been so, Christ would never have stood there. And since Christ stood there, it is no more sin for any man else to stand there, than it is to stand in the wilderness: for it is lawful for us to follow his foot-steps, & to tread wheresoever he hath trod before us; yet such places be not privileged. For as it is true, that many men’s table & wealth is their snare, Psalm. 69. 22. so even the good gifts and graces of God, bee turned to a man’s hurt, as knowledge may serve for a quill to puff him up, and make him swell, 1. Cor. 8. 1. Nay, even that godly sorrow, which is so much to be wished for, has in it matter of temptation, least men be swallowed up with too much heaviness, 2 Cor. 2.7.
The Scriptures themselves (we see) are subject to the abuse of the Devil whereby it should follow, that they are to be refused, if everything be to be refused which brings matter of temptation. But as Augustin saith, Non est laus stetisse in pinaculo, sed stetisse & non cecidisse. In every place to answer the Devil is praise-worthy. Indeed, it is dangerous for one that hath a light and guide brain, for such as are drunk Is. 51.22 (though not with wine) to stand so high.
Job could stand there without falling, for he had a more settled brain, Job 31:27. Such places are for the wisest and sagest men. Saint Paul stood not there, but yet he could haue stood there, for he had the trick or skill of it, as himself confesses, Phil. 4. 12. “I can be abased, and I can abound, &c”
There are two sorts of temptation.
First, Christ was tempted to believe that God would not protect him. This is a temptation of despair: God has left me. These are temptations of the wilderness.
But there is another type of temptation. This second sort of temptation is a temptation to presumption: it is not fit for a solitary place, but for the most public place of all. It is a change to presume upon the grace of God and show oneself to others in this way.
This is a useful taxonomy of temptation: Some temptations work upon need. We need money. We need food. We are lonely. We suffer some privation. We believe God will not rescue us, and so we seek to solve the problem by means of sin. This temptation works upon our fear and insecurity.
But temptation can work in the opposite direction: We are full and are feeling prideful. We wish to extend that pride and receive praise. The Devil has temptations fitted to our pride which cause us to presume upon the grace and goodness of God. We fail to see our dependence upon him, and our need to submit to this will here, also.
The Devil having failed at privation temptations with presumption. For this temptation, the Devil took Jesus to the Holy City and brought him to the highest point.
This then raises a question: How is the Devil taking Jesus anywhere? Andrews makes the question even more pointed: It was not just the Devil, but even the Devil’s “members”, his henchmen who were dragging Jesus around. What then should we think of this? We should conclude that the Son underwent such abuse and humiliation because the Father loves us.
Jesus is brought up (assumpted) first to this pinnacle for temptation. Second, Jesus is assumpted up to Jerusalem to be crucified. Third, Jesus is assumpted up into heaven. He is twice brought up in temptation and trial; then he is brought up in glory.
Another thing to realize here is Jesus is proclaiming the sovereignty of God in all places by going to all places.
He finally deals with the question of avoiding temptation. On one hand, anything can be used to be bring about temptation. We cannot avoid everything. The Devil even uses Scripture as a basis for temptation.
What is the answer? We cannot avoid all temptation. And there is nothing praiseworthy about being tempted. What does not matter is not falling from the pinnacle )where you are being tempted) into sin. As Augustine says, It is not praiseworthy to have stood on a pinnacle. But, [it is praiseworthy] to stand and not fall.
 Andrews here makes an observation concerning the subjective power of a temptation. When we are isolated and our circumstance is precarious, we are less likely to presume upon the grace of God. We feel fearful and are more likely to distrust God in such a circumstance. But when we are in a public place and our “faith” will be lauded, we are more likely to presume upon God’s grace. It is interesting that the degree to which we are willing to trust God is dependent upon our circumstance irrespective of God. Why we would think God would vary in his faithfulness depending upon whether some human being is looking is quite strange.
 Gen. 9:20-21 recounts that after Noah had survived the Flood, he planted a vineyard. Noah made wine and got drunk, which resulted in an unexplained instance of shame.
 In 2 Peter 3:8, Peter refers to Lot as “just” while he lived in Sodom. At the warning of God, Lot and his daughters fled into the mountains when the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed by God. Seeing the destruction, Lot’s daughter concluded all life had been destroyed. Falsely believing themselves to be the two last women on earth, they got their father drunk and then had relations which resulted in pregnancy. Gen. ____
 After David had secured the throne he was found in Jerusalem, alone on his rooftop [a common place to rest in the evening] at “the time of year when kings go out to war.” 2 Sam. 12___. From the roof, David spied a beautiful, married woman bathing. His ensuing adulterous relationship led to great sorrow for himself, his family, the woman’s family, and the kingdom. Rather than being careful, David has become careless of his sanctification.
 The Devil has taken Jesus to a turret of the Temple in Jerusalem: as public a place as could be imagined.
 An ironic use of the phrase “cloud of witnesses” from Hebrews 11__. In Hebrews, the phrase is used as a basis for exhortation to live a life of true faith. Andrews appropriates the phrase for the Devil’s attempt to lead to presumption in Jesus: false faith.
 Luke 4:9 (ESV) “And he took him to Jerusalem and set him on the pinnacle of the temple and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here.”
 Daniel 9:24 (ESV) “Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet, and to anoint a most holy place.”
 Mark 14:61–63 (ESV) “But he remained silent and made no answer. Again the high priest asked him, ‘Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?’ 62 And Jesus said, ‘I am, and you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.’ 63 And the high priest tore his garments and said, “What further witnesses do we need?’”
 “Ananias, the son of Nebedæus, successor or Joseph the son of Camei, or Camydus (‘Ant. Jud.,’ xx. i. 3; v. 2), appears to have been actually high priest at this time. He was a violent, haughty, gluttonous, and rapacious man, and yet looked up to by the Jews (“très considéré,” Renan). He had probably lately returned from Rome, having been confirmed, as it seems, in his office by Claudius, to whom Quadratus, the predecessor of Felix, had sent him as a prisoner, to answer certain charges of sedition against him. He seems to have been high priest for the unusually long period of over ten years—from A.D. 48 to A.D. 59 (see Josephus, ‘Ant. Jud.,’ xx. v. 2; vi. 2, 3; viii. 8). But, on the other hand, Josephus (‘Ant. Jud.,’ xx. viii. 5) speaks of a certain Jonathan being high priest during the government of Felix, and being murdered by the Sicarii at his instigation; which looks as if Ananias’s high priesthood had been interrupted. It would appear, too, from xx. viii, 8, that Ismael the son of Fabi succeeded to Jonathan, not to Ananias, as is usually supposed. But the question is involved in great obscurity.” H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., Acts of the Apostles, vol. 2, The Pulpit Commentary (London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1909), 211.
 “That ver. 14 is an interpolation derived from the parallel in Mk 12:40 or Lk 20:47 is clear (a) from its absence in the earliest and best authorities of the Alexandrian and the Western types of text, and (b) from the fact that the witnesses that include the passage have it in different places, either after ver. 13 (so the Textus Receptus) or before ver. 13.” Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), 50. Matthew 23:14 (AV) “Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.”
 Matthew 23:21 (ESV) “And whoever swears by the temple swears by it and by him who dwells in it.”
 He answers the objection, “How can this be the Holy City? It is filled with hypocrites. And, the Devil feels comfortable being there.”
 Here, “dumb dog” is a just derisive name-calling. The phrase comes from Isaiah 56:10: those who had a duty to protect the city were useless:
Isaiah 56:10 (ESV)
10 His watchmen are blind;
they are all without knowledge;
they are all silent dogs;
they cannot bark,
dreaming, lying down,
loving to slumber.
In place of “silent dogs”, the AV has “dumb dogs.”
 Rather Judas being the one ministered to others, this appears to be a reference to the supper in John 13, where Jesus gave the bread to Judas: John 13:26 (ESV) “Jesus answered, ‘It is he to whom I will give this morsel of bread when I have dipped it.’ So when he had dipped the morsel, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot.”
 Hebrews 10:24–25 (ESV) “And let us consider how to stir up one another to love and good works, 25 not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day drawing near.”
 There is no place so remote nor organization so privileged that the Devil will not come there.
 Matthew 24:15 (ESV) “‘So when you see the abomination of desolation spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand).’”
 The Devil took Jesus to a high place; he raised him up physically.
 Some people, the “weak” may misunderstand this passage and conclude that the Devil has power over Christ to force him to go places where Christ did not wish to go. The verb “to list” means to desire or incline.
 On the analogy of the Church being the “body” of Christ and Christ being the “head”, he speaks of the Devil. The quotation from Augustine means that Jesus was led up the mountain by the “head” (that is, the Devil); and Jesus was delivered/moved/betrayed by the members (Pilate, Herod, et cetera).
 What should we conclude from the fact that the Devil and his minions were permitted to exercise power of Christ? That Jesus Christ lacked strength? No. Andrews says we should look at this willingness to suffer as evidence of the Father’s love toward us. When we look upon the humiliation of Christ, we should see the Father’s love toward us:
1. 1 John 4:8, “God is love.” That the name of God is here taken personally,1 and for the person of the Father, not essentially, is evident from verse 9, where he is distinguished from his only begotten Son whom he sends into the world. Now, saith he, “The Father is love.” that is, not only of an infinitely gracious, tender, compassionate, and loving nature, according as he hath proclaimed himself, Exod. 34:6, 7, but also one that eminently and peculiarly dispenseth himself unto us in free love.” So the apostle sets it forth in the following verses: “This is love.” verse 9;—“This is that which I would have you take notice of in him, that he makes out love unto you, in ‘sending his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him’ ” So also, verse 10, “He loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.” And that this is peculiarly to be eyed in him, the Holy Ghost plainly declares, in making it antecedent to the sending of Christ, and all mercies and benefits whatever by him received. This love, I say, in itself, is antecedent to the purchase of Christ, although the whole fruit thereof be made out alone thereby, Eph. 1:4–6
John Owen, The Works of John Owen, ed. William H. Goold, vol. 2 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, n.d.), 19–20.
 This appears to be a misprint for Luke 22:53. Luke 22:52–53 (ESV) “52 Then Jesus said to the chief priests and officers of the temple and elders, who had come out against him, ‘Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? 53 When I was with you day after day in the temple, you did not lay hands on me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.’”
5 Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, 6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, 7 but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. 8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.
 One of the perplexing points in Christology concerns why Jesus submits to baptism of repentance, seeing that he had no need to repent:
Jesus comes from Galilee, from relative safety, to John at the Jordan to be baptized by him. The one who is free of sin, the one for whom it is John’s whole mission to announce, comes to be baptized by John. We should not be surprised then that John recognizes it is he who should be baptized by Jesus. Yet Jesus, speaking for the first time in Matthew’s gospel, tells John that he must undergo his baptism in order “to fulfill all righteousness.” Jesus, who is the very embodiment of justice, of the law, submits to the law so that we might see justice done. This gives us a foretaste of Jesus, who is life itself, submitting to death so that death may be conquered once and for all.
Stanley Hauerwas, Matthew, Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2006), 48.
 Jesus is brought up on the pinnacle (assumpted) to be tempted. He then “goes up” to Jerusalem to suffer. Finally have been tempted and having suffered, he “goes up” to heaven in glory.
 For the pagan, a god had control of some element or locale. The Syrians thought Israel’s God was likewise so limited: 1 Kings 20:23 (ESV) “And the servants of the king of Syria said to him, ;Their gods are gods of the hills, and so they were stronger than we. But let us fight against them in the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than they.’” But Jesus shows God is God of the wilderness (a valley) and the God of pinnacle (a mountain). He is God everywhere.
 This argument is a bit obscure: it seems to mean that by standing on a pinnacle, Christ was enacting a sinful pride. And that if he put himself in such an obvious and prideful place, and I can go wherever he went, then it is okay for me to do the same. Well, even good things can become a trap for the ungodly. Psalm 69:22 is a prayer of judgment upon those seeking to kill David, “Let their own table before them become a snare.” Good things such as knowledge can lead to pride. 1 Cor. 8:1. And even something as important as sorrow for sin can destroy one in grief. 2 Cor. 2:7.
 The Devil can even use the Bible to bring about temptation. So if we are to avoid everything which could conceivably be used as a basis for temptation, we would have nothing left.
 There is nothing praiseworthy about standing on a pinnacle, but to stand on the pinnacle not fall [is praiseworthy]. It is not praiseworthy that you were someplace where you could be tempted. What is praiseworthy is to be tempted and no succumb to temptation.
Then the diuell tooke him vp into the holie Citie, and set him on a pinacle of the Temple,
And said vnto him, If thou bee the the Sonne of GOD, cast thy selfe downe: for it is written, that hee will giue his Angels charge ouer thee, and with their hands they shall lift thee vp, least at anie time thou shouldst dash thy foote against a stone.
Themanner is, after one hath taken a foil his courage will fail. The angel would have been gone, when he saw he could not prevail over Jacob,Gen. 32. 26. But it is not so here with the Devil: for when he saw that his first temptations would not prevail, he tries another. And even so he plays with Job: for when he could do no good upon his first patent, by taking away all that he had, he comes and sues for a new commission, that he might touch his flesh and bones, Job 2. 5. And thereby he gives us to learn, that it is not one foil that can make him give over.
He is one of those, whom a Father says, to have courage above their strength; and of that nature be many in our days, whose daring is above their skill; and have courage to undertake much more than their ability is to perform: not like David, who did as much as he undertook in killing Goliath: nor like him of whom Isaiah speaks in the seventh verse of his third chapter, that when they would have made him Prince, he had no bread nor clothing, and therefore refused: but they will take it upon them though they have not wherewithal, and thereby become authors of trouble, wanting ability to go through withal. But as Augustine says, “It is not all one not to be able to answer, nor to be able to hold their peace?” We see here the Devil is a great undertaker.
Secondly, he is not only content to take a foil, but even out of the same thing wherewith he was foiled, makes he matter of a new temptation, a new ball of fire. Out of Christ’s conquest he makes a new assault; that is, since he will needs trust, he will set him on trusting, he shall trust as much as he will. As the former tempted him to diffidence, so this shall tempt him to precedence.
As before the Devil brought him to the waters of Meribah (Exod. 17. 7.) where the Children of Israel did murmur and tempt GOD: so now he brings him to the temptation of Massah, (Deut. 6. 16.) that is, to presumption, wantonness and delicacy: for then with bread they were not content, but they must have flesh and other dainties, Psalm. 78. 20. As the first might be called the hungry temptation, so this may be called the wanton temptation. That which was in the Old Testament the Temptation of Maribah, is here in the New Testament the temptation of the wilderness: & that which was there the Temptation of Massah, is here the temptation of the Pinnacle.
In the first, by want of things necessary, he [the Devil] thought to drive them to vexation and bitterness of spirit and to distrust Gods power & goodness: In this second, by unnecessary matters, he draws us on to wantoness, & to put God to try what he can do, and to set him about base services: by the one, he drives us unto unlawful means, by the other, he draws us from the use of things lawful: by the one he brings us to this conceit [thought, idea] that we are so abjected of God, that if we trust in him, he will in the end fail us; by the other, to think we are so dear in God’s eyes, and such darlings, as throw ourselves into any danger, and he will not forsake us: by the one he puts us in fear.
(as Augustine says) [by causing us to disbelieve God] Deum defuturum, et iamsi promisit; by the other, in [presumptuous] hope Deum adfuturum, vbi non promisit: by the one, he [the Devil] slanders GOD unto us, as if he were a God of straw, of base condition, and subject to our beck; by the other, as if he were a God of iron, that would not incline, though we requested him.
As soon as the Devil failed on one temptation, he moved to a second. There are some whose courage fails as soon as they come to fight. But that is not the Devil. He is as reckless and fearless as one might imagine: even if it results in his own loss.
So the Devil being thwarted on one ground, used that very ground as the basis for his attack. First, the Devil tempted Jesus to distrust God: God will starve you to death. You had get your own food: turn these stones into bread.
Jesus thwarts the Devil by (a) quoting Scripture, (b) staking his hope solely upon God. Therefore, the Devil (a) quotes Scripture, and (b) says “you don’t trust God enough!” Why don’t you throw yourself down from this pinnacle and he will save you.
This is how the Devil proceeds with us. If he fails in one direction, he will drag us in the opposite. You trust God, then I’ll give you a real reason to trust. You rely upon some-thing, I will give you even more reason to rely. He is constantly seeking to fit the temptation to occasion. But he also seeks us to either distrust God or presume upon God. He says that God has a heart of iron. Or, God will also indulge your every whim.
5 Then the devil took him to the holy city and set him on the pinnacle of the temple 6 and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written,
“ ‘He will command his angels concerning you,’
“ ‘On their hands they will bear you up,
lest you strike your foot against a stone.’ ”
 A “foil” is a sword. After one takes up a sword to actually fight, he finds his courage fails.
 In a remarkable story, Jacob finds himself set up by a “man” the night before he crosses the Jordan river. Genesis 32:24–26 (ESV) “24 And Jacob was left alone. And a man wrestled with him until the breaking of the day. 25 When the man saw that he did not prevail against Jacob, he touched his hip socket, and Jacob’s hip was put out of joint as he wrestled with him. 26 Then he said, “Let me go, for the day has broken.” But Jacob said, “I will not let you go unless you bless me.”” Andrews refers to this remarkable man as an “angel.”
 A “patent” here refers to a right to proceed in a certain manner granted to one by the king. Satan received permission to try Job by attacking what Job had. When that failed, Satan requested the right to strike Job in his body, which was also granted. Hence, Satan proceeds by means of a “patent.”
 Here “foil” means a repulse, a rejection. The Devil won’t quit just because he loses the first time. In Perlandra, Lewis pictures this as the tempter coming as one who nags insistently: “If the [Un-man’s] attack had been of some more violent kind it might have been easier to resist. What chilled and almost cowed [Ransom] was the union of malice with something nearly childish. For temptation, for blasphemy, for a whole battery of horrors, he was in some sort prepared: but hardly for this petty, indefatigable nagging as of a nasty little boy at a preparatory school.”
 It is unclear whom Andrews is referencing here.
 This paragraph functions as an illustration: There are certain people who have courage than brains. They plunge ahead into danger and just create trouble for themselves. The implication is that the Devil is one who is such a one. He has been bested by Christ and yet he persists.
 The Devil has been bested by a “foil”: Jesus’s use of the Word of God. The Devil, however, does not miss a step. He then takes up the Word of God and tries to use it as a weapon back against Jesus.
 The Devil’s logic is as follows: Jesus you won’t take my bait because you are trusting God to take care you? I have a test for you: How much do you actually trust God? You say you trust him, but is that right
 The first temptation presented Jesus with fear: you can’t trust God. Now the Devil is tempting him to presumption upon God.
 As the Israelites fled into the wilderness, they needed water. They came upon a place where there was water, but it was bitter. They complained about that bitter water.
 “MASSAH (Măsʹ sah) Place-name meaning “to test, try.” Stopping place during the wilderness wandering near the base of Mount Horeb (Sinai). Moses gave the name in response to the people’s desire to put God to the test by demanding water (Exod. 17:7). Massah became a reminder of Israel’s disobedience or hardness of heart (Deut. 6:16; 9:22; Ps. 95:8). Massah often appears together with Meribah (meaning “to strive with, contend, find fault with”; Exod. 17:7; Deut. 33:8; Ps. 95:8). Deuteronomy 33:8 gives a poetic account of the origin of the Levitical priesthood at Massah.”Chad Brand et al., eds., “Massah,” Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2003), 1089. He seems to equate Massah also with the incident of the quail:
Numbers 11:31–35 (ESV) “31 Then a wind from the Lord sprang up, and it brought quail from the sea and let them fall beside the camp, about a day’s journey on this side and a day’s journey on the other side, around the camp, and about two cubits above the ground. 32 And the people rose all that day and all night and all the next day, and gathered the quail. Those who gathered least gathered ten homers. And they spread them out for themselves all around the camp. 33 While the meat was yet between their teeth, before it was consumed, the anger of the Lord was kindled against the people, and the Lord struck down the people with a very great plague. 34 Therefore the name of that place was called Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people who had the craving. 35 From Kibroth-hattaavah the people journeyed to Hazeroth, and they remained at Hazeroth.”
12 In the sight of their fathers he performed wonders
in the land of Egypt, in the fields of Zoan.
13 He divided the sea and let them pass through it,
and made the waters stand like a heap.
14 In the daytime he led them with a cloud,
and all the night with a fiery light.
15 He split rocks in the wilderness
and gave them drink abundantly as from the deep.
16 He made streams come out of the rock
and caused waters to flow down like rivers.
17 Yet they sinned still more against him,
rebelling against the Most High in the desert.
18 They tested God in their heart
by demanding the food they craved.
19 They spoke against God, saying,
“Can God spread a table in the wilderness?
20 He struck the rock so that water gushed out
and streams overflowed.
Can he also give bread
or provide meat for his people?”
 In the first temptation, the Devil sought to force Jesus to distrust God and to seek to solve his problem around God even in disobedience to God. The lack of faith is the “unlawful means.” In the second temptation, he sought have Jesus misuse something good: (1) a promise of God, and (2) trust in God.
 I have been unable to find the source of this quotation (other than in Andrews). It appears that Augustine is referencing the temptation of Jesus and the nature of the Devil’s approach to Jesus: First, the Devil says, You cannot trust God to do what he has promised. Second, you should assume that God will what he has never promised.
 God will abandon us, even if he promised [to act].