The previous post in this series may be found here: https://memoirandremains.wordpress.com/2014/04/28/plutarchs-marriage-advice-section-33-a-wifes-honor/
When philosophers speak concerning physical bodies, they distinguish those which are like armaments or army camps, those which are drawn together like a house or ship, finally those which unified in a single nature like living animals.
This patterns shows itself in marriages, for there are those unified by love and a sympathy of nature, and those who at most sleep together but are separated, and those who even though share a house one couldn’t suppose they “live together.”
Here’s what’s is best: Naturalists say that fluids blend thoroughly in and through one-another. Marriages should be so: bodies, property, friends, households should thoroughly course through one-another. That is why the Roman lawgiver forbade married couples to give or receive gifts from one-another; not because he didn’t want them to share, but rather because they should consider everything they have as belonging to both.
Greek Text & Notes
τῶν σωμάτων οἱ φιλόσοφοι τὰ μὲν ἐκ διεστώτων λέγουσιν εἶναι καθάπερ στόλον καὶ στρατόπεδον, τὰ δʼ ἐκ συναπτομένων ὡς οἰκίαν καὶ ναῦν, τὰ δʼ ἡνωμένα καὶ συμφυᾶ καθάπερ ἐστὶ τῶν ζῴων ἕκαστον. σχεδὸν οὖν καὶ γάμος ὁ μὲν τῶν ἐρώντων ἡνωμένος καὶ συμφυής ἐστιν, ὁ δὲ τῶν διὰ προῖκας ἢ τέκνα γαμούντων ἐκ συναπτομένων, ὁ δὲ τῶν ουʼ συγκαθευδόντων ἐκ διεστώτων, οὓς συνοικεῖν ἄν τις ἀλλήλοις ουʼ συμβιοῦν νομίσειε. δεῖ δέ, ὥσπερ οἱ φυσικοὶ τῶν ὑγρῶν λέγουσι διʼ ὅλων γενέσθαι τὴν κρᾶσιν, οὕτω τῶν γαμούντων καὶ σώματα καὶ χρήματα καὶ φίλους καὶ οἰκείους ἀναμιχθῆναι διʼ ἀλλήλων. καὶ γὰρ ὁ Ῥωμαῖος νομοθέτης ἐκώλυσε δῶρα διδόναι καὶ λαμβάνειν παρʼ ἀλλήλων τοὺς γεγαμηκότας, οὐχ ἵνα μηδενὸς μεταλαμβάνωσιν, ἀλλʼ ἵνα πάντα κοινὰ νομίζωσιν
τῶν σωμάτων οἱ φιλόσοφοι
of the bodies the philosophers
Concerning bodies, it is what philosophers speak about.
τὰ μὲν ἐκ διεστώτων λέγουσιν εἶναι καθάπερ στόλον καὶ στρατόπεδον
some they say are of those separated just like armanents or army camps
Men: points forward toward the next clause
Ek diestoton: from moving things/separated things/distinct things. Perfect active participle, genitivep plural, matches ta.
Legousin: they say
Einai: To be
Kathaper: just as
Stolos: military equipment
Stratopedos: a legion, a military camp
τὰ δʼ ἐκ συναπτομένων ὡς οἰκίαν καὶ ναῦν
while others are knit-together like a household or a ship
τὰ δʼ ἡνωμένα καὶ συμφυᾶ καθάπερ ἐστὶ τῶν ζῴων ἕκαστον
while others are united and of one nature just like each living creature
Interesting use of a double “de”. The third de indicates an intensification of the image.
σχεδὸν οὖν καὶ γάμος
almost therefore and/also marriage
ὁ μὲν τῶν ἐρώντων ἡνωμένος καὶ συμφυής ἐστιν
Some are unified in loving and one nature
ὁ δὲ τῶν διὰ προῖκας ἢ τέκνα γαμούντων ἐκ συναπτομένων
while the others marry for a dowry or children from this joined together
In this section, Plutarch has used the ek + genitive to mark the cause.
ὁ δὲ τῶν ουʼ συγκαθευδόντων ἐκ διεστώτων
still others those not sleeping together from separation
ho de: still others
ton ou sugkatheudonton: the ones not sleeping together
ek diestoton: because of separation.
Both Babbitt & Goodwin translate this as “only sleeping together”:
and that of those who merely sleep in the same bed is of separate persons
Plutarch, Moralia, ed. Frank Cole Babbitt, vol. 2 (Medford, MA: Harvard University Press, 1928), 325.
and they who only bed together, if there be any such, resemble bodies whose parts are distinct and without dependency
Plutarch, Plutarch’s Morals., ed. Goodwin, vol. 2 (Medford, MA: Little, Brown, and Company, 1874), 499.
οὓς συνοικεῖν ἄν τις ἀλλήλοις ουʼ συμβιοῦν νομίσειε
those to dwell together if a certain one to/with one-another no living together one might suppose
hous: those, the ones separated
sunoikein: infinitive, to dwell together
an: conditional particle
tis: who/a certain one
sumbioun: living together
nomiseie: third person singular optative
δεῖ δέ, ὥσπερ οἱ φυσικοὶ τῶν ὑγρῶν λέγουσι διʼ ὅλων γενέσθαι τὴν κρᾶσιν
thus it is best/it is so just as the phusikoi (Babbitt has “scientists”) concerning fluids they say through the whole becomes blended
The phusikoi: the ones of natures, a physicist.
The genitive: fluids, waters: concerning.
οὕτω τῶν γαμούντων καὶ σώματα καὶ χρήματα καὶ φίλους καὶ οἰκείους ἀναμιχθῆναι διʼ ἀλλήλων
thus concerning marriages and bodies and properties and friends and households to be thoroughly mixed through one-another
ἀνα-μίσγω , poet. and Ion. for
A.“ἀναμείγνυμι, ἀνέμισγε δὲσίτῳ φάρμακα” Od.10.235; “αἷμα δακρύοισι” Tim.Fr.7:—Med., have intercourse with, “τινί” Hdt.1.199:—Pass., “γέλως ἀνεμίσγετο λύπῃ” Call.Aet.Fr.7.3 P.
καὶ γὰρ ὁ Ῥωμαῖος νομοθέτης ἐκώλυσε δῶρα διδόναι καὶ λαμβάνειν παρʼ ἀλλήλων τοὺς γεγαμηκότας
For thus the Roman lawgiver prohibited gifts to be given or to be received from one-another those having been married.
τοὺς γεγαμηκότας: substantive use of the participle: the status as married indicating the basis upon which this law applies.
οὐχ ἵνα μηδενὸς μεταλαμβάνωσιν
not for the purpose that nothing they might share
ἀλλʼ ἵνα πάντα κοινὰ νομίζωσιν
but for the purpose that all things in common they might suppose/consider